Home > New English Site > Periodicals > Qabasat > vol 1-19 

Abstracts Vols. 1-19

 

Vol. 5&6

- God and Freedom

The essay, a study of the relationship between faith and freedom, is a description of the believers enjoying true freedom. The issues dealt with are: a review of the arguments on the contradiction of faith and freedom, definition of freedom, the relationship between the concepts of freedom and self, true God - Worship and enjoying freedom.

- Rligious Freedom and Development of

Scientific Thought in Islam. Prof. Abdul - salam, a Muslim Physicist, discusses religious freedom from the view point of the Holy Quran and Prphet Mohammad¨s (P.U.H) Practices. He then Presents a historical review of the Scientific freedom and freedom of expression among Muslims.

 

- Freedom In the Earth:

A Criticism of the philosophical foundations of Liberalism.  The essay is a Critical Study of the Philosophical principles and foundations of Liberalism. In discussing its epistemological foundations, Humanism, Freedom and Toleration are identified as the Central Concepts of Liberalism. The author discusses freedom in more detailed arguments such as definition of freedom, types of freedom, the necessity of freedom, the

Qabasat Vol.2,No.3.4,Autumn.Winter 1376. A philosophical, Religious, Cultural Research Quarterly Licensee & Managing Editor Ali - Akbar Rashad With the Cooperation of the Board of Authors Editor In - Chief: Mohammad - Reza Assadi Typesetting and Make - up: Qabasat Tel: 8153280  Fax: 8841561 P.O.B:13145 - 44 Tehran   1. Discussion Participants: Dr. RezaDavari Hojj Mohssen Kadivar, Ali - Reza Alavi - Tabar and Dr. Hossein Ghaffari. 2. God and Freedom Dr. Gholam - Ali Haddad Adel. 3. Religious Freedom and Development of Seientific Thought in Islam. Professor Abdul - Salam, Translated by Asqar Eftakhari and Qulam - Reza Khadjeh - Sarvi. 4. Freedom In the Earth. Dr. Abdullah Nasri. 5. A History of the Theory of "Velayat - e - Faqih" Ahmad Jahan - Bozorgi. 6. Peotry 7. Communitarianism Will Kimlyka, Translated by Farhad Moshtaq - Sefat. 8. An Introduction to Jung¨s Thought on Religion. Dr. Ahad Faramarz Gharamaleki 9. The theoretical Principles of "Human Rights" in Islam. Seyyed Ali Mir - Mussavi and Seyyed Sadigh Rights in Islam" from an Islamic Point of view ... and present a short critique of the Status of the Western Man in the New Age.

 

- A Reflection on Types of Freedom The essay is a brief and Conscise report of Prof.Ayatullah Motahhari¨s Views on the Subject of Freedom, dealing With issue like definition of freedom, absolute freedom, types of freedom, reasons for and Obstacles to the freedom, The Freedom of mind and thought, freedom of belief, spiritual and social freedom.

- The Idea of Comprehensive Reform in Sayyed Djamal's Thought the essay may be regarded as an example of the arguments dealing with reform and revival of the Muslim Society using a typological approach. The author has tried to present the general directoins and central point of Seyyed Djamaluldin - Assadabad¨s idea of reforming Mulim Society. According to the author the major factors in realizing the reform are: 1. Society (The Forming elements, The relationship between the individual and the Society, The role of The elite); 2. Explanation of Social developments (priority of Culture, Priority of Change in the individual, eliticism, time Senitiveness); 3. Explanation of the decay in Muslim Society (distorted religious ideas, lack of practical knowledge, important leaders, Western colonialization, absence of social unity);  4. Reasons for The Progress in the West (religiou reforms, modern Sciences, Civil Society); 5. Criticism of the Western World (Colonialization, Culture); 6. The ideal Society and government; 7. The Islamic revival (priority of political development, mental Renaissance, Practical uprisals). limits of freedom. The essay ends with a discussion of toleration.

- A History of the Theory of "Velayat - e - Faqih" The essay is a short historical review of the views of faqihs on the subject of "Velayat - e - faqih". The Status of the theory in Theology, theoritical and Practical approaches of certain faqihs to the problem of Government and appointment of the rule of Faqih by Imam - e - Ma¨soom (Innocent Imam) are among the issues discussed.

- Communitarianism The author tries to explain communitarin views on different subjects under discussion by presenting Liberal and Communitarian Counter - arguments. Liberal View of government neutrality in leading people towards their Common good and the Communitarian criticism, Liberal View of the Status of individual in Society and government and its Communitarian Counter arguments are among the major topics.

- An Introduction to Jung¨s Thoughts on Religion. Jung belongs to the group who have not Stopped at a psychological analysis of religion. His thoughts on religion are important because of his Knowledge of Freud¨s views on religion and his Comprehensive treatment of Various aspects of religion.

- Theoretical Foundations of "Human Rights" in Islam. The authors discuss the principles and foundations of "Human Rights" Within the arguments on "Rights and Duties", "Islamic Anthropology", "The Status and Sources of Human

 

----------------------------------

Vol. 7

 

Table of Content

- Discussion: Religion and Development Panel: Dr. Faramarz Rafi'pour, Dr. Hamid Molana, Dr. Homayoon Hemmati and Hojatul-Islam Mahdi Hadavi - Moral Values and Development Economy by professor seyyed Navvab Heidar Naqavi

- Religious Rationalism and Political Development by Dr. Ali Karimi Melah

- The End of Philosophy and the Duty of Thought by Martin Heideger, translated by Mohammad Reza Assadi

- Weber's Model Analysis of the Relationship between Religion and Development by Dr. Taqi Azad Armaki

- Poem

- The Theory of Systematic Thought by Mahdi Hadavi

- Changes in the Meaning of Development and its Relation with Religion by Nasser Djahanian

- The Relation between Religion and Ideology by Dr. Abdullah Nassri

- Future Prospects of Culture and Civilizationby Dr. Mohammad Baqer Heshmat-zadeh

- Book Review

- News and Report ‹ A Criticism of ûA discussion of Religion

and Freedom‎ by Mahdi Akhavan 

 

Abstract

- Islam as a religion intends to direct Man's life, but in the new modern world there have appeared new Phenomena which drastically affect his living and way of life. The main question and concern of a religious society under present circumstances is the relationship between its religion and the new world. But this is far too general and vague a question. To answer the question- What is the relation between religion and the new world?- there is no alternative but to reduce and break this new world to its components in the first place in order to understand and evaluate the relation of each of them separately with religion and then put those individual evaluations together for an overall and general understanding and evaluation. Qabassat, following this approach, has tried in its previous issues to treat the question as much as possible and it is in the same direction that we have raised the question of the relation between Development as one of the components and foundations of the new World- and Islam in the present issue. For this reason the major part of this issue is dedicated to articles exploring various and different dimensions of the relation between Religion and Development. Questions related to the same issue are also raised and answered in the Discussuion soction. The Discussion Panel in this issue are Dr. Faramarz Rafi'pour, Dr. Hamid Molana, Dr. Homayoon Hemmati and Hojatul-Islam Mahdi Hadavi whom we thank sincerely for giving their time to Qabassat.

 

Moral Values and Development Economy by Professor Scyyed Navab Heidar Naqavi The article is a translation of chapter five of professor Naqavi's book entitled "Development Economy: A New Model" Where the relation between moral values and development economy is discussed. The Three main features of the Model presented are: it is a new and global model of development; it incorporates moral values; and under normal circumstances, it presents the most suitable mechanisms to improve the quality of the products and maximize consumers' welfare. The model also emphasizes on the active role of the government in designing and stablishing a proper and suitable legal and judicial framework of realizing development policies in order to facilitate proper stablishment of a mixed economy.

 

 

Religious Rationalism and Political Development Dr. Ali Karimi Melah Philosophical Rationalism, Theological Rationalism, Methodical Rationalism and Sociological Rationalism are discussed as introduction to the study of the relation between religious rationalism and political development. One of the Specific conclusions of the article is that the religious (Shi'ie) rationalism not only does not prevent political development but it also allows the mind to find and formulate means and methods to reach and realize the aims and ideals put forward generally by the religion. The article shows a perfect reconciliation between religious rationalism and political development.

 

The End of Philosophy and the Duty of Thought Martin Heideger Translated by Mohammad-Reza Assadi This scholarly research is certainly useful for both researchers and teachers.It is useful for the researchers in philosophy because the author reviews and criticizes his privious views on existence and time in this short treatise and it is useful for the teachers of philosophy and humanities because the author also explains the status of philosophy vis a vis other displines and the duty of the thought in the present - deeply sank in the rational technical thought "developed" world.But how much he succeeds in his self- criticism and answering the two questions he raises, is a matter of judgement for those who are familiar with Heideger's thoughts on the one hand and the spiritual and material needs of the new world on the other.

 

Weber's Model Analysis of the Relationship between Religion and Development Dr. Taqi Azad Armaki  The methodological misund erstandings of Weber's explanation of the relation between Ethies, Religion and Development to gether.with his epistemological and methodological pessimism are the issues discussed in the article. The aim is to reach at a more exact understanding of his model analysis.

 

The Theory of Systematic Thought(1) Mahdi Hadavi The article is the first part of the theory of systematic thought.The theory is formulated as a mechanism to deduce the main forming components of Islamic views on subjects like economics, politics, law. education, society, etc.. It also deals with issues like levels of religion, fixed and changing elements in religion,identification and distinction of philosophy, faith and government on the basis of those fixed and changing elements and their relations in order to distinguish between local and universal Islamic practices. Qabassat will publish other parts of the theory in its future issues, but to promote dialogue among different views it welcoms and encourages critical analysis and criticism of the theory.

 

Changes in the Meaning of Development and its Relation with Religion Nasser Djahanian Is development passing from tradition to modernism? Is development same as economic development? Is  development same as ideal society? Is development same as becoming God - like? Is development same as old good and affluent society? Is it possible to have development with all good and positive results? Can religion play a role in realization of development? The article tries to explain the relation between religion and development and answer the questions raised.

 

The Relation between Religion and Ideology  Dr. Abdullah Nassri  The author first describe various definitions and features attributed to ideology and then discusses three contemporary views on the Subject. One of the views is finnally reviwed and criticized   Future Prospects of Culture and Civilization Dr. Mohammad Baqer Heshmat-Zadeh  To meet Man's needs numerous answers are given from different sources. Contemporary Western civilization has mobilized all its resources to meet Man's material needs, but has come to great crises.At the eve of such crises Islamic civilization is rising again to open, with the employment of the positive elements of Western civilization and its own divine and historical factors, a new path for Man's welfare and salvation. Whother it succeeds or fails is a subject for future generations to judge.

 

 

Vol. 8&9

 

Religious Experience, Psychology of Religion and Theology: An Interview with Professor Ralph Hood Dr. Faramarz Ghra- Maleki The present interview with Professor Hood is more of a methosological nature. First,the question of religious experience, on which Professor Hood has concentrated his research, and then the nature of psychology of religion, its differences with religious psychology and relation with Theology is discussed. Finally, the relation between philosophical psychology and psychology of religion is explained.

 

The psychology of Religion: A Scientific Multiple Origins Approach Dr. Nima Ghorbani Psychology of religion studies religion from a psychological perspective and it is defined differently by different approaches. It studies and religious behaviour according to the general principles of behaviour. Psychology of religion, due to the structure of its subject- religion, has an interdisciplinary nature and scholars with different interests and diverse origins are attracted to it. The history of the approach demonstrates that it was a major branch of psychology at the turn of the century, but lost its importance as a result of negative conceptulizations of religion by the pioneers of psychology, development of

 

- Religious Experience, Psychology of Religion and Theology: An interview With Professor Ralph Hood from U.S.A Dr.Ahad Faramarz Ghra-Maleki

- Psychology of Religion:An Interdisciplinary Scientific Approach Dr.Nima Ghorbani

- Review of some western psychologists on the psychology of Religion. Abbass Rahimi- Nezhad

- Psychology of Religion in Muslim Societies Dr.Paul J.Watson from U.S.A and Dr.Nima Ghorbani Translated by Pooneh Bana- Kar Haqiqi

- Poem

- A reviw  of Frankl's Theory of Psychology of Religion Seddiqeh Zaker

- Swinburn's Religious Experience and The credulity principle Reza Akbari

- Trust in God. Dr. Baqer Ghobari bonab

- Poem

- The Views of Allameh Jafari on Science and Philosophy Dr. Abdullah Nassri

- Book review, Reports and News

 

 

 

psychology of religion and including the subject in the curriculum of courses like psychology and theology are conductive steps to promote the discipline in our society.

 

Review of some Western Psychologist on The Psychology of religion Abbass Rahimi- Nezhad The article reviews and discusses theories specifically dealing with psychology of religion. First, William James's theory(1901) on the religious experiences reported by various sources and the unconcious as the source of all spiritual experinces like ecstacy, intuition and mysticism is reviewed. Then,Gordon Allport's Theory (1950) of the intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations and their differences is discussed. Erikson's theory, designating faith as a basic adult - human need reflecting his childhood trust of his mother and the external world, is also introduced and discussed. Erikson introduced "identity" and "identity crisis" in his discussion of personality development as concepts related to religion. It lead psychologists like James Marshia (1980) and Adams (1989) to consider religious tendencies as part of individual identity. And finally, the author explains Fowler and Levin's theory (1980). Faith, on the basis of the theory, develops in six phases, starting from childhood and reaching its final form in middle age. radical behaviourism and thenegative reaction of religious institutions. However, efforts to criticize the challenges of psychologist and theologians scientifically, the domination of objectivism and the fall of radical behaviourism brought psychology of religion back to the scene. In the post - modern era it plays its role as a means of empirical dialectic between various views on religion. The Psychology of religion is a different approach from - but somehow related to - religious psychology and its methodology is same as that of general psychology.

In the empirical study of the development of

religiosity as a subject of this discipline, some researchers have used major theories of developmental psychology (e.g theories of piaget and Erikson) to explain it and others have directly formed new theories.Religious experience, an important subject of the discipline, has been usually studied under the discussions on the role of drugs in religious experience, nuerological correlatives of religious experience and the consequences of meditation and prayer. Some other important subjects of the discipline are: the relationship between religiosity and personality individual styles of religiosity, religion, psychopathology and theraputic interventions and religion and social behaviour.

Research planning on the subjects related to

- A Review of Frankl's Theory of Psychology of Religion Seddiqeh Zaker The article offers a berief introduction of Frankl as the founder of ©logotherapy' and reviews his ideas on the meaning of such concepts as life,pain, death, eternity and liberty. The main part of the article is dedicated to explaining Frankl's views on the definition of religion, circumstances favourable to the rise of faith, definition of God, manners of believing, development of religious beliefs and the relation between religion and psychology.

 

Trust in God Dr. Baqer Ghobari bonab In this article "Trust in God", and Reliance on him have been Considered beneficial attributes in Coping With despair, anxiety, and depression. Main Concern of this Study was to investigate methodological approaches adopted in the development of the scale to measure "Reliance on God".

Reliance on God has been defined, and its essential dimensions are explored. Psychological aspects of Reliance on God. as well as its relation to the theory of attributional style ,Locus of control, and Primary or secondary control have been explained. Finally, Psychometric approach to development of an assessment device on Reliance on God has been illustrated.

Psychology of Religion in Muslims Society Dr. Paul J.Watson and Dr. Nima Ghorbani. Past scholars have emphasized the need to create a psychology of religion that is truly sensitive to the concerns of Muslim society. The Work of the American psychologist Gordon W. Allport may suggest how development of a Muslim psychology of religion might proceed. His attempt to define and scientifically measure an intrinsic religious Commitment may be especially relevant.

Any extension of Allport's Work to Muslim population, nevertheless, may need to maintain an awareness of (1.) the different types of religous commitment that Allport discovered,(2.) the manner in which the values of the contemporary social sciences can conflict with those of traditional religion, and (3.) the challenges that have been directed against Allport's interpretation of religion.Theoretical considerations based upon the religious literature of Muslims and several recent empirical studies have suggested that Allport's approach can be used with Muslim populations, but only Muslim scholars will be able to determine if Allport's psychology of religion is truly relevant to their purposes.

 

 

 

- Religious Experience, Psychology of Religion and Theology: An interview With Professor Ralph Hood

from U.S.A / Dr.Ahad Faramarz Ghra-Maleki

- Psychology of Religion:An Interdisciplinary Scientific Approach / Dr.Nima Ghorbani

- Review of some western psychologists on the psychology of Religion / Abbass Rahimi- Nezhad

- Psychology of Religion in Muslim Societies / Dr.Paul J.Watson from U.S.A and Dr.Nima Ghorbani - Translated by

Pooneh Bana- Kar Haqiqi

- Poem

- A reviw  of Frankl's Theory of Psychology of Religion / Seddiqeh Zaker

- Swinburn's Religious Experience and The credulity principle / Reza Akbari

- Trust in God. / Dr.Baqer Ghobari bonab

- Poem

- The Views of Allameh Jafari on Science and Philosophy / Dr. Abdullah Nassri

- Book review, Reports and News

 

Vol. 13&14

 

 

 

Fiqh And Ethics Seyyed Ebrahim Hoseyni What's Fiqh? What are its subjects? What necessitates it? How has it developed through the course of time? How far does it extend, and what's the purpose of Fiqh Legislation? What are the sources of Fiqh rules? These are dealt with in The first section of the paper. Then, in the second section, the notion of ethics, its subject, aim and sources are focused on, With an Stress on the relationship between traqat (mystical Path) and Shari'at (divine law).

Finally, in the third section, relations and distinctions of fiqh and ethics are put on the spotlight: firstly, it is paid attention to the interactional status of fiqh and ethics with both positive and negative approaches, the distinctive status of these two branches of knowledge, and the source of some people's indefference and sarcastic attitude towards fiqh and faghihs (Shi'ite Jurisprudents); Secondly, given to the factors and parameters of distinction and relation-subject, methodology, and sources, etc-the authentic relationship between fiqh and ethics, especially based on the specific functions of each one, is referred to.

 

 

Existential Ideals of Human Beings Mohammad Shoja,i Religion and ethics come in to relationship with human beings. Without any Knowledge about human, talking about the relation between religion and ethics is futile. It is, Therefore, necessary to introduce human being briefly, Prior to any discussion about the relation of religion and ethics, then to study the relation of religion and human, and finally the relation of religion and ethics.

Who is human? What,s humanity? And What is his/her true ideal? We have read and heard about as much as several scores of theories about human, the meaning of humanity, and human ideals introduced by different schools of thought.

Within these theories, there is not only difference, but also clearly deep contrast and contradiction. Sometimes, these differences may be seen even among the followers of one single school or one single scientific source. It is, therefore, better off to answer what is not human, before answering to the aforementioned questions. Answering this question immunize us against many mistakes and differences concerning human and humanity, ideals, prosperity and adversity, and his / her oughts and ought'nts. Answering what is not human will help us to talk about human open-mindedly, for it is possible to spot wrony definitions and meanings concering human intentionelly or unintentionally, and to exclude them from the realm of anthropology. In other words, we may know what's human and humanity more fairly when we could, first and foremost, know what isn't human.

 

 

The Relation of Religion And Ethics: Interview with Hadi Sadeqi, Hasan Mo'allemi, and Mahmud fath-'Ali. Once man first stepped on the life arena, found himself aceompanied and associated with a twin, namely religion and ethics, which throughout man's existence, in spite of all its ups and downs in the realm of practical life, faithfully continued to accompany him, and still do. In theory and thought, these two were sometimes intimate associates, and sometimes rivals; one day ethics was affected by religion and the other day religion was affected by ethics. today, such lively, dynamic discussions still preoccupy the mind and language of scores of thinkers and scholars, and will do so; to this end, in the current issue of Qabasat, the research quarterly, it is attempted to ask the opinions of three scholars of Qom theological Seminary (Hoze-ye 'Elmiye-ye Qom).

 

 

the General Structure of Islamic Ethics 'Ali Shirvani. The author believes that Islam is teleological rather than deontologistic, and to document it, he resorts to the sacred texts of Islam, the Quran, in which, as a means of encouragement and calling for good deeds, it is stressed that these deeds lead to happiness, wellfare, salvation, and reward. In addition, there are many verses in Quran which morally urge people to do good deeds, then, to recompensate them, promise the paradise and its heavenly blessings, and, for evil-doers, omens chastisement. the author discusses this issue. Finally, dividing humans, stratify ethics, and believes that certain moral deeds suits some people, but doesn't suit some hiyher level people.

 

 

 Dr. Hasan HabibiIn Memory of the Professor the paper is the edited version of the author's lecture delivered in the Commemoration Congress in Memory of 'Alla¦me Mohammad-taqhi Ja'fari. Firstly, he deals with a sociological subject in the Iranian society with regard to in defference of scholars and intellectuals, and their inappreciativeness, and to several factors, including: (1) governments thwarted intellectuals' spiritual ascension in society for political considerations; (2) self-underestimation against western culture, indifference towards native culture, disregard for local intellectuals, and in fact, somehow a kind of silence plot; (3) fear from intellectuals' shift of attitude rather than their encouragement and celebration. Next, he gives a brief analysis of the good disposition and morality of prof. Ja'fari.

 

 

Dr. 'Abdorrahim GovahiLife story As an ex-student of prof. Ja'fari, the author, reviewing his life briefly, discusses about his scientific and moral characteristics, including: (1) his scientific boldness and unbiased treatment with his own ideas: (2) availing himself of the most up-to-date scientific achivements of the world, and keeping a close association with local and foreign scholars to solve scientific problem,s (3) his open-mindedness, tolerance of others' opinions, and positive criticism of ideas; (4) introducing new, innovative ideas in different spheres of human knowledge; (5) his diverse ideas with as many os over one hundred books; and (6) his exceptional scientific vigor, which even in hospital urge him to study incessantly. At the end, some reminescences of prof. Ja'fari are mentioned.

 

 

A Soul-consious Anthropologist. 'Ali-'Akbar Rashad  The paper is the edited version of the anthor's lecture delivered in the Commemoration Congress in Memory of 'Allame Mohammad-Taqhi Ja'fari. As an ex-student of prof. Ja'fari, the lecturer, due to his close acquaintance with his works, considers his specialism and skill in anthropology and related studies as his great intellectual dimension.

 

 

An Introduction to the philosophy of Ethics from the Viewpoint of 'Ostad Motahhari Mas'ud 'omid The philosophy of ethics is a significant study in the realm of philosophical thought, and Muslim philosophers have done researches in this respect. Howeer, a philosophy of ethics with its particular frameworks, has methodologically been fromulated by 'Ostad Morteza Motahhary, utalizing, Allame Mohammad-hoseyn tabatabayi's ideas. the author, referring to numerous works by 'ostad Motahhari, mentions' develops and explains his definitions on ethics, philosophy of ethics and other telated fields of knowledge, the relation between ethics, epistemology and psychological studies. the Relation of Religion and Ethics from the Viewpoint of Kant.

 

 

Mohammad Mohammed-rezayi Kant is a philosopher who believes in essential independence of ethics that can be studied separately, independent of religion, and states that there is no need to the intervention of religion to determine what is moral, and what is immoral. This article, explaining Kant's opinion on the relation of ethics and religion, analyzes his ideas about the following:

(1) ethics; (2) religion; (3) true religion; (4) definition and function of religion; and (5) historical events. In brief: (1) in Kant's moral system, man is obliged to seek for the highest goodness,but no means of overcoming the inclinations preventing the realization of goodness is provided by this moral system; (2) Kant believes that God is the hiyhgest goodness and the infinite rational being whose knowledge and power is infinite. A question now arises to ask how are rational commands of human, as a finite being, indispensable? However, the commands of God, as the infinite, powerful, knowing being, are not indispensable. Also, Kant, elsewhere, considers the hope to go to the Heaven and fear from the Hell as the motivation to follow God's commands and this eliminates the hope and fear values of moral deeds. In response, it could be said that the motivation of many people to obey God is not sheer fear; secondly, hope and fear contradict ethics only when they are not originated from the reason. But if the reason command it, they don't contradict moral autonomy.

 

 

Contents

* The relation of religion and ethics: interview with Hadi sadeqi, Hasan Mo'allemi, and Mahmud Fath 'Ali.

* Religion and ethics / 'Ayatollah Mohammad taqi Mesbah yazdi.

* The general structure of Islamic ethics / Dr. 'Ali shirvani.

* Religion and the Queerness of Morality / George Mavrodes, translated by Reza¦ 'Akbari.

* An introduction to the philosophy of ethics from the viewpoint of 'Osta¦d Motahhari / Mas'ud 'Omid.

* Fiqh and ethics / Seyyed 'Ebrahim Hoseyni.

* The quality of value / Jan W. van Deth, and Elinor Scarbrough translated by 'Asqar 'Eftekha¦ri.

* Existential ideals of human beings / Mohammad shoj¦a'i.

* vrtue ethics / jane porter, translated by 'Ensha, llah Rahmati.

* Poems.

* The relation of religion and ethics from the viewpoint of kant / Mohammad Mohammad-Rezayi.

* In memory of the professor / Dr. Hasan Habibi.

* A soul-conscious an thropologist / 'Ali-'Akbar Reshad.

* Life story / Dr. 'Abdorrahim Govahi.

* Reports and News.

* English abstracts.

 

Vol. 18

 

Islam and Plurality of Readings

Dr. M.H. Ghadrda¥n Ghara¥maleki

 

The theory of "Various readings of Islam" is interpreted in two opposite senses in two theories. One

theory advocates plurality in readings as  an I-proposition in the speculative, uncertain doctrines and only

when some specific bases are obtained while the other claims the plurality of readings in all religious

doctrines, certain or uncertain, and without taking into consideration the specific bases.

This essay deals with the background of the subject first and then, while discussing supposition of words,

proves vocality of the Sharia'h through three proofs (Reason, Quran, and Sunnah). Discussing

interpretation of religion, it divides religious doctrines into "explicit meaning", "appearant meaning" and

"ambigious meaning". Doctrines of the first kind are discribed as needless to be interpreted or read, of the

second kind as necessity of the intellectual judgement, but of the third kind as dependent upon acquiring

specific conditions and foundations without whose consideration the interpretation and reading would be

incorrect. Distinguishing between valid readings (product of specific foundations) and unvalid ones (which

have not acquired the specific foundations), the essay attempts to indicate that the valid raeding is only

considered as justified and acceptable which does not necessarily mean its being true or correspondent to

the reality.

In the second part of the essay, doubts and proofs of adherents of the second theory are discussed in an

analytical, critical way.

Their doubts are to be classified as follows:

1. Relativity of man's knowledge.

2. Silence of the text and Shariah.

3. Interference of mental developments.

4. A certain reding being neither provable nor abolishable.

5. Temporal space between the Quran and Sunnah.

6. Difference in recognition of permanents and variants.

7. Actuality of different readings.

To answer those questions, the essay presents several arguments among which is studing transmission of

the particular's case to the general, that is, the above mentioned proofs can only be discussed in uncertain

doctrines and this case cannot be transmitted to the certain ones.

 

O   O   O

 

 

The Essential and the Accidental of a Text (A Hermeneutical Discourse on the

Differences in Readings)

Alireza Gha¥eminia¥

 

The main topic of this essay is  the study of differences in readings based on distinguishing between the

essential and the accidental of a text. The essay takes three steps. In the first step it divides differences of

readings into general and particular ones and while explaning the essential of a text concludes, from

analyzation of differnces in readings on the one hand and expounding the essential of a text on the other,

that the general difference in readings is absolutely unacceptable. In the second step it studies some claims

of Gadamer's philosophical hermeneuties on the basis of distinguishing the essential of a text from its

accidental while indicating that this theory cannot be taken as the basis for gereral difference of readings.

And finally, in the third step, taking into consideration some words of some contemporary intellectuals, it

clarifies that their claim is in fact the gereral difference in readings and the particular one which is a

certain, obvious affair will not satisfy them. what is presented in today's Iranian cultural atmosphere as

"differences in readings", therefore, is the general difference - something which cannot be justified.

 

O   O   O

 

Readibility of Religion

Ahma¥d Vaezi

 

This essay is to prove that there are commonly three chief theories in the realm of understanding the

religion:

1. Author pivotality based on which the commentator seeks for the purpose and objectives of the author

when he interprets. In order to understand them properly, commentator should evacuate his mind from

prejudgements.

2. Commentator pivotality based on which commentary is brought about in accordance with commentator's

prejudgements and his mental presuppositions and there would be no criterion for preferring one

commentary to another.

3. Text pivotality based on which the text is independent from the author; just like a child who is born by

one's parents and is no longer in need of them when one is grown up. The author's effect enjoys an

indepedent life from the author.

The essay deals with commentator pivotality and text pivotality critically and asserts that we cannot

attain the real meaning of the text without taking into consideration the author's personality and

intentions.

In the realm of religious culture, commentators and believers seek for finding what the speaker asserts

and thus to them one's purposes and intentions are something of great value.

We can accept existence of presuppositions in the act of interpretation. But presuppositions are of two

kinds: (1). instrumental presuppositions, and (2). sensemaking presuppositions. Presuppostions of the first

kind are necessary while of the second kind should be avoided.

Different readings of religion is only correct in the sense that some religious texts, and not all the texts,

might be understood differently. What modern hermeneutics is looking for is that all religious texts are to

be read differently - a claim which is not in conformity with the fact.

O   O   O

 

An Opening to the Light

Logic of Understanding Religion and Religious Texts

M.B.Saeedy Roshan

 

The cheif purpose of this essay is to expound some criteria by whose observing the religious

understanding and knowing would be guaranteed. Some contemporary challenges concerning religious

understanding and their roots which originate chaos, relativism, skepticism, and atheism are dealt with first.

Then, essentials of man's knowledge in four axes of sense and experience, thinking and argumental reason,

common intuition and esoterie presence, and innocently intuition among which is revelation are mentioned.

Criterion of validity of man's knowledge and the relation between religious knowledge and the religion in

two divisions of pre-entering to the religious texts as well as knowledge originated by the religious texts

sent down by God are described next.

Controling criteria and guidelines counted as the logic of understanding religious texts are to be

indicated as follows:

1. Invocation to reasonable rules governing the language which present appearant meaning and the least

necessary conditions for common understanding of the Quran based on which it becomes clear that one

cannot predicate various Quranic descriptive propositions of man, God, this world, the Hereafter, etc.

merely based on symbolic meanings.

2. Interior compatiblity and hormony of the very text; for the reason bears wittness and the narration

explicitely asserts that there is no contradiction in God's and the innocent leader's words based on which

one cannot present an understanding of some parts of the Quran and the Sunnah which contradicts some

other parts of that text.

3. Compatibility and correspondence to the argumental reason.

4. Answering and taking into consideation the vital needs of man.

5. Clearifying one's stand when presenting a commentary on the Quran and Sunnah expressing whether

it is religious look or a skeptical, atheistic one.

 

O   O   O

 

Role of Man's Understanding in Building a Divine Text

Abbas Javareskiyan

 

Since the theory of "Shrinkage and expansion of the Shariah" has been the primary, axial matter for Dr.

Soroush's most opinions and ideas in fields of religion, hermeneutics, and political, social philosophy in the

last decade. This essay approaches the basic part of the said theory- i.e., denial of religion's knowledge -

giving role - critically and discusses essentials of his thought in the field of hermeneutics.

In the writer's opinion, the theory of "Shrinkage and expansion of the Sharia'h" is based on a plane,

simple - minded look at the complex process of commentary as well as man's multiple identity. The said

theory is chiefly a product of ignoring such certain principles of commentary as:

1. The dynamic, mutual process of text and understanding.

2. Necessity of psychic conformity and sympathy with the text and living in its specific tradition and

culture.

3. Importance of discovering semantic canons of the text.

4. The relation between commentary of the text and external presuppositions.

5. Difference of texts in relation to being clear and bringing about knowledge.

The writer holds that the major fallacy which produced the main matter for the theory of "Shrinkage

and expansion of the Sharia'h" especially pluralistic look at the religion is fallacy of mistaking the socond -

rate knowledge by the first - rate one.

It is based on this fallacy that plurality of understandings, commentaries, and sects in the history is

taken as a proof for indeterminacy of knowing the text and thus all understandings and commentaries are

considerd as equally valuable.

 

O   O   O

 

The Origin of the Theoty of Evolution of Religious Knowledge

M.Mohammad Rezaee

 

This essay indicates that pillars of the theory

of ûevolution of religious knowledge‎ or ûtheoric shrinkage and expansion of Shariah‎ and even the

very theory are adapted from Western thinkers. Although adaptation ideas and theories from others is not

considered, as dishonesty, one is supposed to name those thinkers from whom one has borrowed inorder to

observe principles of morality. Pillars of the said theory,anyhow,are as follows.

1. Religion and religious knowledge are different from one another.

2. Religion is a permanent affair undergoing no difference and transformation.

3. Religious knowledge is a kind of human knowledge.

4. Various human knowledge enjoy correlation.

5. Human knowledge undergo transformation.

6. Transformation of human knowledge is evolutionary and not retrogressive.

The essay has approached some of the said pillars critically.

An Opening to the Light

Logic of Understanding Religion and Religious Texts

M.B.Saeedy Roshan

 

The cheif purpose of this essay is to expound some criteria by whose observing the religious

understanding and knowing would be guaranteed. Some contemporary challenges concerning religious

understanding and their roots which originate chaos, relativism, skepticism, and atheism are dealt with first.

Then, essentials of man's knowledge in four axes of sense and experience, thinking and argumental reason,

common intuition and esoterie presence, and innocently intuition among which is revelation are mentioned.

Criterion of validity of man's knowledge and the relation between religious knowledge and the religion in

two divisions of pre-entering to the religious texts as well as knowledge originated by the religious texts

sent down by God are described next.

Controling criteria and guidelines counted as the logic of understanding religious texts are to be

indicated as follows:

1. Invocation to reasonable rules governing the language which present appearant meaning and the least

necessary conditions for common understanding of the Quran based on which it becomes clear that one

cannot predicate various Quranic descriptive propositions of man, God, this world, the Hereafter, etc.

merely based on symbolic meanings.

2. Interior compatiblity and hormony of the very text; for the reason bears wittness and the narration

explicitely asserts that there is no contradiction in God's and the innocent leader's words based on which

one cannot present an understanding of some parts of the Quran and the Sunnah which contradicts some

other parts of that text.

3. Compatibility and correspondence to the argumental reason.

4. Answering and taking into consideation the vital needs of man.

5. Clearifying one's stand when presenting a commentary on the Quran and Sunnah expressing whether

it is religious look or a skeptical, atheistic one.

 

O   O   O

 

Readibility of Religion

Ahma¥d Vaezi

 

This essay is to prove that there are commonly three chief theories in the realm of understanding the

religion:

1. Author pivotality based on which the commentator seeks for the purpose and objectives of the author

when he interprets. In order to understand them properly, commentator should evacuate his mind from

prejudgements.

2. Commentator pivotality based on which commentary is brought about in accordance with commentator's

prejudgements and his mental presuppositions and there would be no criterion for preferring one

commentary to another.

3. Text pivotality based on which the text is independent from the author; just like a child who is born by

one's parents and is no longer in need of them when one is grown up. The author's effect enjoys an

indepedent life from the author.

The essay deals with commentator pivotality and text pivotality critically and asserts that we cannot

attain the real meaning of the text without taking into consideration the author's personality and

intentions.

In the realm of religious culture, commentators and believers seek for finding what the speaker asserts

and thus to them one's purposes and intentions are something of great value.

We can accept existence of presuppositions in the act of interpretation. But presuppositions are of two

kinds: (1). instrumental presuppositions, and (2). sensemaking presuppositions. Presuppostions of the first

kind are necessary while of the second kind should be avoided.

Different readings of religion is only correct in the sense that some religious texts, and not all the texts,

might be understood differently. What modern hermeneutics is looking for is that all religious texts are to

be read differently - a claim which is not in conformity with the fact.

 

O   O   O

 

Role of Man's Understanding in Building a Divine Text

Abbas Javareskiyan

 

Since the theory of "Shrinkage and expansion of the Shariah" has been the primary, axial matter for Dr.

Soroush's most opinions and ideas in fields of religion, hermeneutics, and political, social philosophy in the

last decade. This essay approaches the basic part of the said theory- i.e., denial of religion's knowledge -

giving role - critically and discusses essentials of his thought in the field of hermeneutics.

In the writer's opinion, the theory of "Shrinkage and expansion of the Sharia'h" is based on a plane,

simple - minded look at the complex process of commentary as well as man's multiple identity. The said

theory is chiefly a product of ignoring such certain principles of commentary as:

1. The dynamic, mutual process of text and understanding.

2. Necessity of psychic conformity and sympathy with the text and living in its specific tradition and

culture.

3. Importance of discovering semantic canons of the text.

4. The relation between commentary of the text and external presuppositions.

5. Difference of texts in relation to being clear and bringing about knowledge.

The writer holds that the major fallacy which produced the main matter for the theory of "Shrinkage

and expansion of the Sharia'h" especially pluralistic look at the religion is fallacy of mistaking the socond -

rate knowledge by the first - rate one.

It is based on this fallacy that plurality of understandings, commentaries, and sects in the history is

taken as a proof for indeterminacy of knowing the text and thus all understandings and commentaries are

considerd as equally valuable.

 

O   O   O

 

The Essential and the Accidental of a Text (A Hermeneutical Discourse on the

Differences in Readings)

Alireza Gha¥eminia¥

 

The main topic of this essay is  the study of differences in readings based on distinguishing between the

essential and the accidental of a text. The essay takes three steps. In the first step it divides differences of

readings into general and particular ones and while explaning the essential of a text concludes, from

analyzation of differnces in readings on the one hand and expounding the essential of a text on the other,

that the general difference in readings is absolutely unacceptable. In the second step it studies some claims

of Gadamer's philosophical hermeneuties on the basis of distinguishing the essential of a text from its

accidental while indicating that this theory cannot be taken as the basis for gereral difference of readings.

And finally, in the third step, taking into consideration some words of some contemporary intellectuals, it

clarifies that their claim is in fact the gereral difference in readings and the particular one which is a

certain, obvious affair will not satisfy them. what is presented in today's Iranian cultural atmosphere as

"differences in readings", therefore, is the general difference - something which cannot be justified.

 

O   O   O

 

Islam and Plurality of Readings

Dr. M.H. Ghadrda¥n Ghara¥maleki

 

The theory of "Various readings of Islam" is interpreted in two opposite senses in two theories. One

theory advocates plurality in readings as  an I-proposition in the speculative, uncertain doctrines and only

when some specific bases are obtained while the other claims the plurality of readings in all religious

doctrines, certain or uncertain, and without taking into consideration the specific bases.

This essay deals with the background of the subject first and then, while discussing supposition of words,

proves vocality of the Sharia'h through three proofs (Reason, Quran, and Sunnah). Discussing

interpretation of religion, it divides religious doctrines into "explicit meaning", "appearant meaning" and

"ambigious meaning". Doctrines of the first kind are discribed as needless to be interpreted or read, of the

second kind as necessity of the intellectual judgement, but of the third kind as dependent upon acquiring

specific conditions and foundations without whose consideration the interpretation and reading would be

incorrect. Distinguishing between valid readings (product of specific foundations) and unvalid ones (which

have not acquired the specific foundations), the essay attempts to indicate that the valid raeding is only

considered as justified and acceptable which does not necessarily mean its being true or correspondent to

the reality.

In the second part of the essay, doubts and proofs of adherents of the second theory are discussed in an

analytical, critical way.

Their doubts are to be classified as follows:

1. Relativity of man's knowledge.

2. Silence of the text and Shariah.

3. Interference of mental developments.

4. A certain reding being neither provable nor abolishable.

5. Temporal space between the Quran and Sunnah.

6. Difference in recognition of permanents and variants.

7. Actuality of different readings.

To answer those questions, the essay presents several arguments among which is studing transmission of

the particular's case to the general, that is, the above mentioned proofs can only be discussed in uncertain

doctrines and this case cannot be transmitted to the certain ones.

 

O   O   O

 

The Origin of the Theoty of Evolution of Religious Knowledge

M.Mohammad Rezaee

 

This essay indicates that pillars of the theory

of ûevolution of religious knowledge‎ or ûtheoric shrinkage and expansion of Shariah‎ and even the

very theory are adapted from Western thinkers. Although adaptation ideas and theories from others is not

considered, as dishonesty, one is supposed to name those thinkers from whom one has borrowed inorder to

observe principles of morality. Pillars of the said theory,anyhow,are as follows.

1. Religion and religious knowledge are different from one another.

2. Religion is a permanent affair undergoing no difference and transformation.

3. Religious knowledge is a kind of human knowledge.

4. Various human knowledge enjoy correlation.

5. Human knowledge undergo transformation.

6. Transformation of human knowledge is evolutionary and not retrogressive.

The essay has approached some of the said pillars critically.

 

 

 

 

Subscribe To Newsletter

Contact us

Mail Address : Second St. Bokharest Ave. Tehran, Iran

Int.Affairs@iict.ac.ir

+98-02188743008