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20-21

Religious Rulership: Its Principles and

Foundations

Ayatollah H.Nouri Hamadani

The essentials of an Islamic Rulership, from Imam Ali's viewpoint, are discussed in this essay in a matrix

containing 32 principles, some of which are as follow:

1. Ascetic life of state agents;

2. Avoid amassing wealth;

3. To Special care for the poor and needy people as well as special effort to uproot poverty;

4. Not to hide anything from people;

5. Special attempt to guarantee people's satisfaction;

6. To treat people kindly, to respect them, and to observe man's dignity;

7. To observe justice precisely while avoiding oppression strongly;

8. State agents being responsible to the people;

9. To guarantee freedom for people;

10. To control state agents' deeds.

 

Religion and Democracy

Ali Akbar Rashad

Defining democracy as sharing intelligence and vote as well as people's will in directing a society on the one hand

and religion as a series of commands dealing with man's this-worldly attitudes as well as his destiny in both this world

and the world to come whose sources are revelation, intellect, and man's divine nature on the other, the writer holds

that should we treat democracy only as those models that depend on humanism and liberalism and have no resultant

but secularism it could never be reconciliated with religion or any other similar world-view whose basic pivot is

God-pivotality. He maintains that only such type of democracy which is democratic in its structure and attitude, which

he calls sacred democracy, may be in harmony with religion. In such a democracy, revelation and intelligence play

some role whose nature differs according to the subject dealt with.

 

Goals and Ideals of  Rulership

Mohammad Soroush

This essay embarks on explaining the goals of rulership from Imam Ali's viewpoint. In this connection, it deals with

answering the following questions:

1. What are the goals Imam Ali has set for his own or for an Islamic rulership?

2. Which goals of the rulership are given the priority according to Imam Ali?

3. Did Imam Ali attain his goals when he established a government?

Answers of the above questions are to be given in this way:

1. According to Imam Ali, goal of a rulership should be executing God's law, in other words, to establish divine

standards in the society and to safeguard the shari'ah.

2. The priority, according to Imam Ali, is given to an organized order which of course does not serve subsistence

of cruels. In his opinion, justice has priority over all other social values on the one hand and spiritual values have

priority over this-worldly welfare on the other.

3. Imam Ali did not have the opportunity to conceptualize his ideas concerning welfare of the Islamic society

because of problems created by his enemies.

 

Philosophico-Theological Foundartions of

Religious Rulership

M. Mohammad Rezaee

Aiming at presentation of intellectual bases of religious rulership, the writer on the one hand explains the idea that

social life is necessary for man's intellectual life and on the other hand this point that state establishment is a social

necessity which is based on two pillars of "law" and "the ruler". Taking into consideration the four intellectual criteria

for sovereignty in a society, he then compares various kinds of rulerships and comes to this conclusion that the Islamic

rulership, which is the best one, is but sovereignty of perfection. Thirdly, he expounds the Islamic ruler's attributes of

perfection which are his being endowed with complete faith and trust in God, piety, justice, moral perfections,

knowledge of Islamic law, management, and respect others, consultations. Fourthly, he deals with the question of

legitimacy of rulers and holds that people's vote alone cannot grant legitimacy to a ruler who lacks attributes of

perfection. And finally, he critically discusses Immanuel Kant's viewpoints concerning religious rulership.

 

Shaykh Fazlollah Nouri and Naiini:

Contrariety or Misunderstanding

Ahmad Jahanbozorgi

This essay deals with disputes of Shaykh Fazlollah Nouri and Naeeni, two contemporary political thinkers,

concerning fundamental political issues and rulership in Islam. The writer maintains that they have had no

disagreement regarding basic issues of political thought and bases of legitimacy of the government such as the right to

rulership, political contribution of all people, taking into consideration consultation, constitution, freedom, and so on.

What marks their disputes is their disagreement on such notions as emergency government, corrupt and more

corrupt, etc. on the one hand and their disharmony in using words and interpreting them. For instance, they disagreed

that whether the parliament in that time could be considered as a real one. Thus, we can conclude that their

disagreement has been only in applications and not in fundamental issues of political thought.

History of Political Thought in Islam

Mohsen Mohajerniya

According to this essay's writer, history is the most notable laboratory in which one can observe the process of

generation of a political thought. However, no thorough research has been done concerning various dimensions of the

history of Islamic political thought. Pointing to the two approaches in this connection, the writer deals with the subject

based on two discourses: discourse of Orientalism, and discourse of tradition. Being European-pivoted, the former

criticizes Islamic political thought without having any sympathy or concern about it and thus attributes corruption and

destruction to the Islamic thought itself. On the other hand, being past-pivoted and steeped in the tradition, the latter

treats the Islamic political thought as a whole as an absolute authority due to the excessive trust in its antecedent

thinkers without thinking of any criticism, correction, or simplification.

Criticizing those two approaches, the writer presents a new viewpoint concerning Islamic political thought which he

calls "genealogy of the Islamic political thought" and which surveys political thought both horizontally and vertically.

 

Political Life in Mulla Sadra's Thought

Najaf Lakzaee

Has Mulla Sadra deliberated upon this-worldly affairs? Contrary to those who claim that Mulla Sadra has just

taken hereafterly affairs into consideration, the writer holds that he has also paid attention to this-worldly ones treating

this world as a farm with regard to the world-to-come.

This essay divides political schools into two major ones: the school of guidance, and the school of power. The

latter considers this world as the final end while the former treats it as an introduction to the world-to- come. Thus, it

would be nonesense to expect those two school treat this-worldly affairs in the same way. Since Mulla Sadra follows

the first school, politics in his opinion is to conduct and guide the society from this world to the world-to-come with a

specific intention, that is, to make progress in attaining God's proximity. In other words, to shift form worshiping one's

own self to worshiping God and from polytheism to monotheism.

Maintaining that Islam has dealt with such steps that man should follow in order to pass the way from this world

into the world to come safely, the writer describes those steps and stations at the end of his essay.

 

Iran and Politics: Revolutionary

Evolution & Scientific Development

M.B. Heshmatzadeh

The following questions are to be examined and answered in this essay:

1. On what science and knowledge did the phenomenon of revolution occur?

2. Could politics of 70's in Iran and globe predict such a phenomenon?

3. What impressions have the revolution as a real, objective, and practical subject had on the realm of politics?

The writer holds that the Islamic revolution has been, and still is, the main subject of Iranian politics in the recent

decades.

For, on the one hand, all political subjects and questions occurred in these decades are somewhat causes or results

of the Islamic revolution and, on the other hand, one would find in the revolution the general subject of politics, i.e,

the power, should one generalize it. To discuss the Islamic revolution, therefore, would mean to discuss that how the

power was transferred and established in Iran which is in turn a particular subject of the general subject of the

politics.

 

Nature of Political

Philosophy (Abstract)

Raymond Plant

Translated by: M. Baratalipour

 Political philosophy developed as a central aspect of philosophy generally in the world of ancient Greece, and the

writings of Plato and Aristotle made a basic and still important contribution to the subject. Central to political

philosophy has been a concern with the justification or criticism of general political arrangements such as democracy,

oligarchy or kingship, and with the ways in which the sovereignty of the state is to be understood; with the relationship

between the individual and the political order, and the nature of the individual's obligation to that order, with the

coherence and identity of the political order from the point of view of the nation and groups within the nation, and

with the role of culture, language and race as aspects of this; with the basis of different general political ideologies and

standpoints such as conservatism, socialism and liberalism; and with the nature of the basic concepts such as state,

individual, rights, community and justice in terms of which we understand and argue about politics. Because it is

concerned with the justification and criticism of existing and possible forms of political organization a good deal of

political philosophy is normative; it seeks to provide grounds for one particular conception of the right and the good in

politics. In consequence many current controversies in political philosophy are methodological; they have to do with

how (if at all) normative judgments about politics can be justified.

This essay discusses the following questions:

1. Universalism in Political Philosophy;

2. The critique of Political Philosophy;

3. The Communitarian Response.

 

A Glance at Shabastaris "Formal Readings of

Religion: A Critique"

Abdollah Nasri

Although the book entitled "criticizing formal readings of religion" written by M.Mojtahed Shabestari has left a

considerable room for criticism, no critiques has seen the light of day so far. This book, which is divided into four

parts, is a collection of author's different articles dealing with a variety of issues whose critiques is in need of a book

and not an article. This article, anyhow, is an effort to criticize only its three fundamental pivots concerning readabilty

of religion, non-efficiency of jurisprudence, and human rights. The writer holds that being influenced by some

hermeneuticians such as Gadamer, Shabestari attempts to treat their teachings as bases for understanding the Quran

and Sunnah. The writer asserts that Shabestari's method in this connection suffers from some paralogism and is a wan

method of thinking, while cognitive geography of some issues posed by him has no relation to the Islamic culture.

Some of Shabestari's critiques concerning some thinkers such as Tabatabaee, Ja'fari, and Javadi Amoli are also

answered in this essay.

 

 

   _

Qabasat

A Research Journal on Studying of Religion

Vol. 6 No. 20-21  July-December 2001. ISSN 1029-4538

License & Managing Editor: Ali Akbar Rashad With

the Cooperationv of the Board of Authors

Editor In-Chief: M. Mohammad Rezaie

Head of The Editorial Board: Ali-Reza Ganji

Typeseting and Make-up: Schcolarly Journals

Tel: 8501064,8735417 Fax: 8764792 P.O. Box: 13145-444Tehran,Iran.

E.mail: Qabasat@islamic-iict.org

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

$3O Two Interviews on Religious and Secular Rulerships / A. Amid Zanjani &

Mohammad J. Larijani

$28O Religious Rulership: Its Principles and Foundations / Ayatollah Nouri Hamadani

$41O Religion and Democracy / Ali Akbar Rashad

$48O Goals and Ideals of Rulership / Mohammad Soroush

$57O Philosophico-Theological Foundations of Religious Rulership / M. Mohammad Rezaee

$72O Shaykh Fazlollah Nouri and Naiini: Contrariety or Misunderstanding / Ahmad Jahanbozorgi

$82O History of Political Thought in Islam / Mohsen Mohajerniya

$94O Political Life in Mulla Sadra's Thought / Najaf Lakzaee

$105O Iran and Politics: Revolutionary Evolution & Scientific Development / M. B.Heshmatzadeh

$120O Nature of Political Philosophy (Abstract) / Raymond Plant, Translated by: M. Baratalipour

Reviews

$124O A Glance at Shabastari's "Formal Readings of Religion: A Critique" / Abdollah Nasri

$146O Principles of Political Thought in Makkid Quranic Verses / M. Abdollahi Aran

$158O A Critique of "Civil Society and Political Development in Iran" / D. Mahdavizadegan

$168Miscellaneous

 

 

22

The Revival of Religion & The Reformation of Religious Life

Ali Akbar Rashaad

Religious revivalism consists of re-editings and re - readings of the religious propositions, in order to refine and

purge the religiously oriented life according to proper incentive and approach.

The article tries to propound and define a short list of the accurate motivations, characteristics, and sanitizing

methods of resuscitation movements as well as to show any abnormal variation from the sound condition of religiosity

for removing the impediments in the area of religious progress. It also covers a brief observation concerning the

reawakening idiosyncrasy of Martyr Morteza Motahhari.

 

The Taproots of the Religious Reform in Iran

Mohammad Mohammad-Reza'ee

Although religion and adhering to it is the source of humand life in societies, it can be deviated and

misunderstood by people, therefore, misjudging its original concept and content. It is the responsibility of the religious

revivalists to rectiy them. Since the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, there has been a kind of deviated view,

especially, in recent years, in the name of religious novelty in the cultural atmosphere of our country. One excursus in

this field, mainly stated by Mohammad Mojahid Shabestry, is based on the following three hypotheses :

1) The fundamental part of a religion is established on religious experience.

2) The language of religion is symbolic and mysterious.

3) Exegesis of religious texts is based on prior assumptions and there exist no authentic version.

The article attempts to show that Mr. Shabestary's views are adopted from Christian theorists; the origions of

which are found in the theological religious texts of Christianity and presented here. A condensed critisim is added at

the end.

 

Revivalism and Belief: Two Perspectives

Mohammad Taqi Fa'ali

Belief is considered as sacred and transcendent by contemporary culture. In the Islamic cultural viewpoint, based

on the teachings of the Holy Qur'an, belief is a predominant value and virtue. Since concerning religious faith, there

exist two outlooks, each of which has profound impacts on other fields such as science, politics, economics and

technology, it is essential to analyze the two standpoints, ascertain the identity of the Islamic view and acquaint

ourselves with this crucial problem.

 

Modern Retrogression

Davood Mahdavi-Zadegan

To find the true originality of a religion is one of the more significant inquiry in reasonable and social subjects.

This will, in turn, help to see the right direction and orientation of the religious beliefs. It also indicates the right path

of intellectual reasoning for the explanation of the true religious thoughts.

The article is after finding a genuine meaning of different options through comparative study. This method of

investigating can provide the scholars clear sight into the differences between the convergent points and the

discrepancies of two subjects that are being compared.

 

Religious Experience: A Nightmar

AliReza Qa'emiNia

Religious Reformation is a very serious discussion that took place among religious illuminati and intellectuals. In

the last previous centuries. A great deal of different ideas and opinions have been proposed. One of these tenets lays

stress on a return to religious experience. The author of this article pays attention to various meanings of "religious

reforms", especially that pertaining to Islam, and makes a distinction between the three aspects of this religion: the

recorded, the behavior, and the belief. Then the idea of those who seeks new innovations, as well as the origin of

newfangled ideas, are studied, culminating in a glance at the archeological hypotheses.

 

Shaikh Fazlollah Nouri, a Revolutionary at the Age of Despotism, and a

Reformer in the Iranian ConstitutionalEra

Ali Abulhassani Monzer

Constitutionalism had been a great event of the recent history of Iran, and having a great impart on the culture

and politics of our country, is regarded as a turning point in the recent history of Iran. Today, many scholars believe

that an authentic analysis on the rootstock of Constitutionalism, as well as its consequences, is a necessity for the

students of the history and culture of Iran. It can also serve for us as a lesson to improve the condition of political

activities. If we are to study the Iran' Constitutionalism properly, we would be in need of analyzing the views and

standings of Shaikh Fazlollah Nouri, who had been tremendously influential in the entire event of the history of

Constitutionalism, causing a deep challenge between "religion" and "modernism" in the recent history of our country.

 

Allamah Tabataba'ee, as a Revivalist

Sayyed Mohammad Hakkak

The revival of the religious thought, usually, includes the resuscitation of the religious thinking to its authentic

resources; or to enable the religious belief to function properly against any transitory and unfounded new ideas or

opinions. To renovate a religious belief to its original form can be done either in the form of correction or in the

shape of adjustment; i.e a rebirth is done by either bringing the authentic thought of the religion to the community of

believers or to revitalize the deviated course to its original path. If some of the religious teachings have become

inappropriate due to the misunderstandings of some groups or individuals, the revivalist would have to change the

course to its original sources through his knowledge and devotion. Or he may be obliged to justify some current

religious thoughts to the real instruction of the Divinity in order to remove the improper portions of the dominant

religious manners.

There is a third kind of religious revivalism: it is done through the restoring of the actual tenets of the religion.

This will enable the practicing individuals or groups to become prepared against any mischievous action or thought.

The most difficult kind of religious revivalism is to stand against the new doctrines and ideas that are deviated.

The late Allamah Tabataba'ee, was a true revivalist. He was explicitedey concerned to leave some good

experiments behind and, in so doing, succeed to leave behind valuable works. The article has attempted to clarify

some of them which have had a sound and fitting impression on the Islamic religious literature.

 

The New Social & Contemporary Islamic Movements: A Comparative

Study

Golamreza Behruz Lak

The main point of this article is to perceive the nature and identity of new social movements in comparison with

the contemporary Islamic movements. The Islamic movements have a long lasting history that have emerged many

times in the course of history. But the one which is called Islamic Revolution, has had a very profound exhilaratings,

challenging the whole characteristics of the Western Civilization. It has revived the Islamic sense of reasoning,

confronting that of the West's. Islamic values have been invigorated since then and a need of comparsion has arisen to

study this movement with various revolutions that have occurred in recent centuries in order to find the common and

differing points.

Despite the long history of the Islamic movements, having huge effects on various aspects of the Muslim and

non-Muslim communities, it is necessary to have a careful scrutiny about the nature and character of the Islamic

movements. So far, two significant models of analysis have been proposed, i.e., that of Herayer Kemijkan and the

other of Khorshid Ahmad Khan. The article intends to study these two models and compare them with the new social

movements.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents:

The Revival of Religion & The Reformation of Religious Life/ Ali Akbar Rashaad

The Taproots of the Religious Reform in Iran/ Mohammad Mohammad-Reza'ee

Revivalism and Belief: Two Perspectives/ Mohammad Taqi Fa'ali

Modern Retrogression/ Davood Mahdavi-Zadegan

Religious Experience: A Nightmare/ AliReza Qa'emiNia

The Revolutionary Ideology of the late Imam Khomeini: the Rebirth of Shi'ism/ Hamid Reza Akhavan

Shaikh Fazlollah Nouri, a Revolutionary at the Age of Despotism, and a Reformer in the

Constitutionalism/ Ali Abulhassani MonzarIranian

From Mirza of Na'een to Imam Khomeini/ Hamid Parsania

Allamah Tabataba'ee, as a Revivalist/ Sayyed Mohammad Hakkak

The New Social & Contemporary Islamic Movements: A Comparative Study/ Gholamreza Behruz Lak

Getting away from Religion/ Hadi Sadeqi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   _

Qabasat

A Research Journal on Studying of Religion

Vol. 6 No. 22  Jan-March 2002. ISSN 1029-4538

License & Managing Editor: Ali Akbar Rashad With

the Cooperationv of the Board of Authors

Editor In-Chief: M. Mohammad Rezaie

Head of The Editorial Board: Ali-Reza Ganji

Typeseting and Make-up: Schcolarly Journals

Tel: 8501064,8735417 Fax: 8764792 P.O. Box: 13145-444Tehran,Iran.

E.mail: Qabasat@islamic-iict.org

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

O The Revival of Religion & The Reformation of Religious Life/ Ali Akbar Rashaad

O The Taproots of the Religious Reform in Iran/ Mohammad Mohammad-Reza'ee

O Revivalism and Belief: Two Perspectives/ Mohammad Taqi Fa'ali

O Modern Retrogression/ Davood Mahdavi-Zadegan

O Religious Experience: A Nightmare/ Ali Reza Qa'emiNia

O The Revolutionary Ideology of the late Imam Khomeini: the Rebirth of Shi'ism/ Hamid Reza Akhavan

O Shaikh Fazlollah Nouri, a Revolutionary at the Age of Despotism, and a Reformer in the Iranian

Constitutionalism/ Ali Abulhassani Monzer

O From Mirza of Na'een to Imam Khomeini/ Hamid Parsania

O Allamah Tabataba'ee, as a Revivalist/ Sayyed Mohammad Hakkak

O The New Social & Contemporary Islamic Movements: A Comparative Study/ Gholamreza Behruz Lak

O Getting away from Religion/ Hadi Sadeqi

Review

O "Authority in Islam: From the Rise of Muhammad to the Establishment of the Ummayyads"

/Gholamreza Behruz Lak

 

23

The Symphony of Qur'an from the Outlooks of Wisdom and Mysticism

By: Dr. Mohammad Javad Sa, adi Shahrudi

 

To recite the Holy Qur,an in a Symphonic hymn is stated emphatically by both Shi'ee and Sunni religious sects of Islam. The phonetic construction of Qur,an is arranged in such a nice manner that makes it melodious by itself. Is there any rational ground for the euphoric recitation of Qur,an besides the apparent musical composition and the advice of the religious leaders for reading Qur,an in a tune? In that case, no disagreement with its harmonious reciting can be justified on any grounds of reason or tradition.

 

In this article, two reasonable motives are mentioned for the justification and rationality of the Lyrical recital of Qur,an:

1) Hearing Symphonic reading is in accordance with the nature of human being;

2) Listening a euphoric recitation is a cause for human contmplation.

 

Key words: symphony, recital, contemplation, aesthetics

24

License & Managing Editor:Ali Akbar Rashad

Editor In – chief: Mohammad Mohammad Rezaie

Typeseting and Make–up: Schcolarly Journals

Tel: 021 – 8501064 , 8735417  &  0251 – 7830627

Fax: 021 – 8764792  &  0251 - 7831601

P.O.Box: 13145 – 444  Tehran   &  37185 – 179  Qom  ,  Iran

 

Email:Qabasat@Islamic–iict.org

www.Qabasat.org

 

 

 

Vol. 9  /  Do. 33 /  Autumn 2004

 

QABASAT

 

A Quarterly Journal on

studying Religion

 

 

 

3 / The Sacred [and Spiritual] Fate of the History

Ali Akbar Rashad

3 / Globalization as a Ground for Globalizing; Expecting the Promised Day

Ayatollah Mohammad Hadi Marefat

4 / Mahdism and Entezar (expectation) in Ayatollah Motahhari’s Thought.

Hussain Sozanchi

5 / Globalization and the Outlook of Faraj

Gholamreza Behrozlak

6 / The Western Globalization and the Islam’s Universal Reign

Mortaza Shirudi

6 / The Salvation in Zoroastrianism

 Mohammad Sepehri

7 / The Pathology of Globalization and Globalizing

(A Universalism Based on Mahdism)

Ali Reza Sadra

8 / Ibn-Khaldun’s Views on Traditions Relating to Mahdism:   A Critical Review

Maahdi AkbarneŽad

8 / Social Justice and the Related Issues

Ahmad Waeizi

Translated by Syed Ishaq Alavi

 

 

The Sacred [and Spiritual] Fate of the History

AliAkbar Rashad

 

   This paper discusses three forms of globalizations: prophetic [or prophecy-oriented] globalization, phi­losophicalglobalization, authoritative (hegemonic) globalization. Although globalization or globalizing has to be studied in the fields of political sociology, economic sociology, international relations, technological sociology, etc, the author has tried to investigate globalization from a philosophical perspective.

     Raising and reviewing a number of factors and reasons the author argues that authoritative and hegemonic globalization is unviable. According to the theory of entezar and the philosophy of faraj, he emphasizes on the inevitability and the feasibility of the sacred globalization. Enumerating twenty indicators as pre-requisite for the development and evolution of human life under the reign of Imam Mahdi, he sketches out the prospect of a sacred and spiritual end for thehistory.

      Key words: globalization, globalizing, the philosophy of faraj, the fate of history, the philosophy of history, prophetic globalization, philosophers-led globalization, authoritative and hegemonic globalization, unfeasibility of  the secular globalization. 

 

Globalization as a Ground for Globalizing; Expecting the Promised Day

Ayatollah Mohammad Hadi Marefat

 

The idea of globalization as a ground for globalizing ema­nate­s from the world views of world’s great scholars, including the philosophers and prophets as the forerun­ners of any social   development. As a result of enormous developments in transportation, telecommunication, and information technologies that has decreased significance of geographi­cal borders and facilitated the flow of goods, in­formation and human being, the trend of globalization is gaining momentum. Consequently mutual convergence and cognition seems to be inevitable. The implications of this, right or wrong, affects globalizing. Than, what to do? Should we watch passively and wait for others to shape our fate? Or, in response to our human-Islamic responsibil­ity, should we rise and gain the leadership and management of globalization and as emphasized in the Holy Quran, commit our self to the promotion and imple­mentation of justice in the global level?   

Accordingly, the inventible process of globalization, today, may be seen as a challenge and at the same time, an opportunity.   Therefore, our opposition to globaliza­tion should be bound to its negative aspects. Because whether we like or dislike, the process of globalization is   like an unstoppable deluge.

 What is important in this proc­ess is to manage and control it, a duty Islam has obliged us to carry out. The major instrument that Is­lamic leadership provides for management of globalization is the enriched culture and the constructive elements of this culture. This instrument is in the hand of Moslems and no other culture can resist it. The best possi­ble global community leadership tool is the dynamic and productive culture of Islamic nations.

Thus, to treat globalization as a threat or an opportu­nity depends on how to interpret it. Facing globalization in a passive manner will jeopardize our national and religious interests. However, in view of our brilliant histori­cal background and rich and genuine culture, if we assume the leadership and management of globalization trend, than undoubtedly we will be the champion.

Key words: globalization, convergence among na­tions, entezar the promised day, globalism, Mahdi’s reign, Islam’s universality.

 

 

Mahdism and Entezar (expectation) in Ayatollah

Motahhari’s Thought.

Hussain Sozanchi

 

The belief in rise of Imam Mahdi and the expec­tation for a global promised messiah faces a number of theoretical challenges, such as: if a perfect justice is supposed to be realized in afterworld, than, what is the need for the establishment of a just universal reign? Why waiting for faraj (the relief brought about to human kind when Imam appears) is regarded as the best religious acts, given that waiting does not fall in the category of acts, let alone to be the best act? In view of our belief in Imam Mahdi’s universal reign, should we approach to the contemporary question of globalization? Should the pandemonium and injustice fill the world as a precondition for the rise of Imam Mahdi, than our efforts to reform the world would not hamper and postpone his appearance? If our efforts to reform can prepare the ground for the transcendental evolution of human being, than what is the need for Imam Mahdi’s rise? In short, we are asked to wait for the rise of a universal promised messiah. First, Why?  Secondly, how? This is up to us. The paper attempts to answer these questions from ayatollah Motahhari’s view.

 

       Key words: Motahhari, Mahdi, Mahdism, expecta­tion, individualism, socialism, mystic aids, globalization, the rise of the promised.  

 

 

Globalization and the Outlook of Faraj

Gholamreza Behrozlak

 

Throughout the history Faraj doctrine has been a common doctrine among all religions. The believers always have endured too many hardships in the hope of the promised ultimate prosperity. But when this dream will take place? Notwithstanding the believers strong belief that sooner or later this dream will be translated into reality, the emergence of some signs and symbols willconsolidate this belief.

Globalization is one of the factors that have at­tracted more attentions to the doctrine of faraj. In spite of inconsistent interpretations and perceptions about the process of globalization and Mahdism, the paper’s macro approach maintains that, in general, globalization facili­tates and sets the ground for belief in Islamic doctrine ofFaraj.

 

Key words: Mahdism, faraj, globalization, westerni­zation, universal governance, the unified Ummah

 

 

The Western Globalization and the Islam’s

Universal Reign

Mortaza Shirudi

 

More than a decade after the emergence and growth of globalization or globalizing, still there are many ambigui­ties posing a number of questions and controversies such as: what is globalization? When and where was it born?  Is there any tendency towards global­ization in Islam?  Can we establish Islamic global­ization? What are the bases, properties, structures and instruments of an Islamic globalization?  Of course attempts have been made to answer some of these ques­tions, but the variety and the multiplicity of these answers have given rise to a number of new ambiguities and questions. Therefore, any attempt to sum up these answers would helpclarify the aforesaid ambiguities. And this is what this paper intends to do.

To find a satisfactory answer the following assump­tions worth consideration:

The west is the birthplace of the term globalization, but Islam is the birthplace of the phenomenon.

It is only Islam that possesses the due capability, characteristic, structure and instrument for managing globalization.

 To verify the validly and credibility of above assumptions, following issues are discussed in this paper:

Definition of globalization and the explanation of its background and history,

Islam’s view on globalization; the potentials, capabilities, mechanisms and characteristics of an Islamic globalization.

Key word: Islam, Tradition, Quran, globalization, globalizing

 

 

The Salvation in Zoroastrianism

Mohammad Sepehri

 

Almost in every religion of the world there is a be­lief that when human society declines to a state of moral and spiritual degeneration and separates from the origins of existence, and the world is deluged with the darkness, negligence, cruelty and injustice, a savior messiah will appear. In all religious creeds, one can find certain resem­bling realities expressed or referred to symbolically.

In Mazdaysina too, there is a strong belief that the soashyant, promised savior will appear. In Zoroastrian sa­cred writings (Avesta and Pahlavi texts) there are predic­tions and statements about the birth, rise, disciples, and achievements of a just messiah called soashyant.

It is attempted in this paper to extract and examine the Zoroastrian views about the promised messiah from Mazdaysina sacred texts.

 

Key words: Mahdism, Mazdaysina, Avesta Soashy­ant, end of the world.   

 

 

The Pathology of Globalization and Globalizing

(A Universalism Based on Mahdism)

Ali Reza Sadra

 

Universalism is a serious, continuous, pervasive phenomenon both today and in the decades to come. There are three forms of universalism based on Islamic-Quranic, political and scientific approaches:

Genuine, perfect, material and spiritual universalism with economic development, political stability and social balance, cultural and individual uplift.

Imperfect, inefficient, merely economic and one dimensional universalism.

Factitious, imperialistic and conflicting contentious universalism. Some resemblances, though apparently, between the universalism based upon Mahdism and the contemporary universalism have led to some comparative discussions.

By approaching and realizing the Mahdaveiat universalism, according to the demands of times in the present and future, we can get the best uses of global and universal opportunities and decrease the threads. A better appreciation of Mahdaveiat universalism and an optimal critical approach to other universalisms can help us Increase the scientific and practical effectiveness of Islamic republic of Iran, Moslems and the cultural elites and achieve an appropriate arrangement and management of communications and exchanges, which in turn, prepares the ground for the establishment of a true and genuine universalism based upon Mahdism.

Key words: pathology, vulnerabilities, universalism, globalization, globalizing.

 

Ibn-Khaldun’s Views on Traditions Relating to Mahdism:   A Critical Review

   Maahdi AkbarneŽad

 

   Belief in Mahdism is accounted as one of major Islamic tenets. Due to this importance, researchers have approached it from different aspects.  Though, to some extent, there is a consensus among Moslem writers and scholars on the essentials of belief in a form of Mahdism, in the mean time, a few people have attempted to raise some questions and deny this belief. Ibn-Khaldun is thought to be the most prominent figure and the ringleader of those who have questioned and denied the basis of belief in Mahdism by discrediting traditions related to Mahdism.

This essay discusses and reviews Ibn-Khaldun’s views and arguments on debilitating traditions supporting Mahdism.

Key words: traditions on Mahdism, Ibn-Khaldun, the promised Mahdi, a critical review of Ibn-Khaldun’s views  

 

 

Social Justice and the Related Issues

Ahmad Waeizi

 

The paper is aimed to discuss the social justice or distributive justice. It is with John Rawls’s “theory of justice”, that the distributive justice enters a new phase.  According to Rawls, justice is not a simple value among other values that affect the social order and human relations; rather it is the primary and the supreme social value.  The significance and the status of social value are on a par with the importance of the question of truth in human knowledge.  As the validity and the integrity of any theory and cognitive statements are verified by the question of truth, the legitimacy and the perfection of a social structure depends upon its consistency and conformity with the justice principles.

Key words:  social justice, distributive justice, so­cial structure, criterion of justice. Right and good, John Rawls, equality

 

35

Vol. 9  /  Do. 33  /  Autumn 2004

 

 

QABASAT

 

 

A Quarterly Journal on

studying Religion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

License & Managing Editor:Ali Akbar Rashad

Editor In – chief: Mohammad Mohammad Rezaie

Typeseting and Make–up: Schcolarly Journals

Tel: 021 – 8501064 , 8735417  &  0251 – 7830627

Fax: 021 – 8764792  &  0251 - 7831601

P.O.Box: 13145 – 444  Tehran   &  37185 – 179  Qom  ,  Iran

 

Email:Qabasat@Islamic–iict.org

www.Qabasat.org

 

 

 

Vol. 9  /  Do. 33 /  Autumn 2004

 

QABASAT

 

A Quarterly Journal on

studying Religion

 

 

 

3 / The Sacred [and Spiritual] Fate of the History

Ali Akbar Rashad

3 / Globalization as a Ground for Globalizing; Expecting the Promised Day

Ayatollah Mohammad Hadi Marefat

4 / Mahdism and Entezar (expectation) in Ayatollah Motahhari’s Thought.

Hussain Sozanchi

5 / Globalization and the Outlook of Faraj

Gholamreza Behrozlak

6 / The Western Globalization and the Islam’s Universal Reign

Mortaza Shirudi

6 / The Salvation in Zoroastrianism

 Mohammad Sepehri

7 / The Pathology of Globalization and Globalizing

(A Universalism Based on Mahdism)

Ali Reza Sadra

8 / Ibn-Khaldun’s Views on Traditions Relating to Mahdism:   A Critical Review

Maahdi AkbarneŽad

8 / Social Justice and the Related Issues

Ahmad Waeizi

Translated by Syed Ishaq Alavi

 

 

The Sacred [and Spiritual] Fate of the History

AliAkbar Rashad

 

   This paper discusses three forms of globalizations: prophetic [or prophecy-oriented] globalization, phi­losophicalglobalization, authoritative (hegemonic) globalization. Although globalization or globalizing has to be studied in the fields of political sociology, economic sociology, international relations, technological sociology, etc, the author has tried to investigate globalization from a philosophical perspective.

     Raising and reviewing a number of factors and reasons the author argues that authoritative and hegemonic globalization is unviable. According to the theory of entezar and the philosophy of faraj, he emphasizes on the inevitability and the feasibility of the sacred globalization. Enumerating twenty indicators as pre-requisite for the development and evolution of human life under the reign of Imam Mahdi, he sketches out the prospect of a sacred and spiritual end for thehistory.

      Key words: globalization, globalizing, the philosophy of faraj, the fate of history, the philosophy of history, prophetic globalization, philosophers-led globalization, authoritative and hegemonic globalization, unfeasibility of  the secular globalization. 

 

Globalization as a Ground for Globalizing; Expecting the Promised Day

Ayatollah Mohammad Hadi Marefat

 

The idea of globalization as a ground for globalizing ema­nate­s from the world views of world’s great scholars, including the philosophers and prophets as the forerun­ners of any social   development. As a result of enormous developments in transportation, telecommunication, and information technologies that has decreased significance of geographi­cal borders and facilitated the flow of goods, in­formation and human being, the trend of globalization is gaining momentum. Consequently mutual convergence and cognition seems to be inevitable. The implications of this, right or wrong, affects globalizing. Than, what to do? Should we watch passively and wait for others to shape our fate? Or, in response to our human-Islamic responsibil­ity, should we rise and gain the leadership and management of globalization and as emphasized in the Holy Quran, commit our self to the promotion and imple­mentation of justice in the global level?   

Accordingly, the inventible process of globalization, today, may be seen as a challenge and at the same time, an opportunity.   Therefore, our opposition to globaliza­tion should be bound to its negative aspects. Because whether we like or dislike, the process of globalization is   like an unstoppable deluge.

 What is important in this proc­ess is to manage and control it, a duty Islam has obliged us to carry out. The major instrument that Is­lamic leadership provides for management of globalization is the enriched culture and the constructive elements of this culture. This instrument is in the hand of Moslems and no other culture can resist it. The best possi­ble global community leadership tool is the dynamic and productive culture of Islamic nations.

Thus, to treat globalization as a threat or an opportu­nity depends on how to interpret it. Facing globalization in a passive manner will jeopardize our national and religious interests. However, in view of our brilliant histori­cal background and rich and genuine culture, if we assume the leadership and management of globalization trend, than undoubtedly we will be the champion.

Key words: globalization, convergence among na­tions, entezar the promised day, globalism, Mahdi’s reign, Islam’s universality.

 

 

Mahdism and Entezar (expectation) in Ayatollah

Motahhari’s Thought.

Hussain Sozanchi

 

The belief in rise of Imam Mahdi and the expec­tation for a global promised messiah faces a number of theoretical challenges, such as: if a perfect justice is supposed to be realized in afterworld, than, what is the need for the establishment of a just universal reign? Why waiting for faraj (the relief brought about to human kind when Imam appears) is regarded as the best religious acts, given that waiting does not fall in the category of acts, let alone to be the best act? In view of our belief in Imam Mahdi’s universal reign, should we approach to the contemporary question of globalization? Should the pandemonium and injustice fill the world as a precondition for the rise of Imam Mahdi, than our efforts to reform the world would not hamper and postpone his appearance? If our efforts to reform can prepare the ground for the transcendental evolution of human being, than what is the need for Imam Mahdi’s rise? In short, we are asked to wait for the rise of a universal promised messiah. First, Why?  Secondly, how? This is up to us. The paper attempts to answer these questions from ayatollah Motahhari’s view.

 

       Key words: Motahhari, Mahdi, Mahdism, expecta­tion, individualism, socialism, mystic aids, globalization, the rise of the promised.  

 

 

Globalization and the Outlook of Faraj

Gholamreza Behrozlak

 

Throughout the history Faraj doctrine has been a common doctrine among all religions. The believers always have endured too many hardships in the hope of the promised ultimate prosperity. But when this dream will take place? Notwithstanding the believers strong belief that sooner or later this dream will be translated into reality, the emergence of some signs and symbols willconsolidate this belief.

Globalization is one of the factors that have at­tracted more attentions to the doctrine of faraj. In spite of inconsistent interpretations and perceptions about the process of globalization and Mahdism, the paper’s macro approach maintains that, in general, globalization facili­tates and sets the ground for belief in Islamic doctrine ofFaraj.

 

Key words: Mahdism, faraj, globalization, westerni­zation, universal governance, the unified Ummah

 

 

The Western Globalization and the Islam’s

Universal Reign

Mortaza Shirudi

 

More than a decade after the emergence and growth of globalization or globalizing, still there are many ambigui­ties posing a number of questions and controversies such as: what is globalization? When and where was it born?  Is there any tendency towards global­ization in Islam?  Can we establish Islamic global­ization? What are the bases, properties, structures and instruments of an Islamic globalization?  Of course attempts have been made to answer some of these ques­tions, but the variety and the multiplicity of these answers have given rise to a number of new ambiguities and questions. Therefore, any attempt to sum up these answers would helpclarify the aforesaid ambiguities. And this is what this paper intends to do.

To find a satisfactory answer the following assump­tions worth consideration:

The west is the birthplace of the term globalization, but Islam is the birthplace of the phenomenon.

It is only Islam that possesses the due capability, characteristic, structure and instrument for managing globalization.

 To verify the validly and credibility of above assumptions, following issues are discussed in this paper:

Definition of globalization and the explanation of its background and history,

Islam’s view on globalization; the potentials, capabilities, mechanisms and characteristics of an Islamic globalization.

Key word: Islam, Tradition, Quran, globalization, globalizing

 

 

The Salvation in Zoroastrianism

Mohammad Sepehri

 

Almost in every religion of the world there is a be­lief that when human society declines to a state of moral and spiritual degeneration and separates from the origins of existence, and the world is deluged with the darkness, negligence, cruelty and injustice, a savior messiah will appear. In all religious creeds, one can find certain resem­bling realities expressed or referred to symbolically.

In Mazdaysina too, there is a strong belief that the soashyant, promised savior will appear. In Zoroastrian sa­cred writings (Avesta and Pahlavi texts) there are predic­tions and statements about the birth, rise, disciples, and achievements of a just messiah called soashyant.

It is attempted in this paper to extract and examine the Zoroastrian views about the promised messiah from Mazdaysina sacred texts.

 

Key words: Mahdism, Mazdaysina, Avesta Soashy­ant, end of the world.   

 

 

The Pathology of Globalization and Globalizing

(A Universalism Based on Mahdism)

Ali Reza Sadra

 

Universalism is a serious, continuous, pervasive phenomenon both today and in the decades to come. There are three forms of universalism based on Islamic-Quranic, political and scientific approaches:

Genuine, perfect, material and spiritual universalism with economic development, political stability and social balance, cultural and individual uplift.

Imperfect, inefficient, merely economic and one dimensional universalism.

Factitious, imperialistic and conflicting contentious universalism. Some resemblances, though apparently, between the universalism based upon Mahdism and the contemporary universalism have led to some comparative discussions.

By approaching and realizing the Mahdaveiat universalism, according to the demands of times in the present and future, we can get the best uses of global and universal opportunities and decrease the threads. A better appreciation of Mahdaveiat universalism and an optimal critical approach to other universalisms can help us Increase the scientific and practical effectiveness of Islamic republic of Iran, Moslems and the cultural elites and achieve an appropriate arrangement and management of communications and exchanges, which in turn, prepares the ground for the establishment of a true and genuine universalism based upon Mahdism.

Key words: pathology, vulnerabilities, universalism, globalization, globalizing.

 

Ibn-Khaldun’s Views on Traditions Relating to Mahdism:   A Critical Review

   Maahdi AkbarneŽad

 

   Belief in Mahdism is accounted as one of major Islamic tenets. Due to this importance, researchers have approached it from different aspects.  Though, to some extent, there is a consensus among Moslem writers and scholars on the essentials of belief in a form of Mahdism, in the mean time, a few people have attempted to raise some questions and deny this belief. Ibn-Khaldun is thought to be the most prominent figure and the ringleader of those who have questioned and denied the basis of belief in Mahdism by discrediting traditions related to Mahdism.

This essay discusses and reviews Ibn-Khaldun’s views and arguments on debilitating traditions supporting Mahdism.

Key words: traditions on Mahdism, Ibn-Khaldun, the promised Mahdi, a critical review of Ibn-Khaldun’s views  

 

 

Social Justice and the Related Issues

Ahmad Waeizi

 

The paper is aimed to discuss the social justice or distributive justice. It is with John Rawls’s “theory of justice”, that the distributive justice enters a new phase.  According to Rawls, justice is not a simple value among other values that affect the social order and human relations; rather it is the primary and the supreme social value.  The significance and the status of social value are on a par with the importance of the question of truth in human knowledge.  As the validity and the integrity of any theory and cognitive statements are verified by the question of truth, the legitimacy and the perfection of a social structure depends upon its consistency and conformity with the justice principles.

Key words:  social justice, distributive justice, so­cial structure, criterion of justice. Right and good, John Rawls, equality

37

Completion of Prophethood and the Authority of Innocent Imams

Ayatollah Jafar Subhani

 

Recently some doubts are casted on the consistency between beleivng Mohammad (pbuh) as the final prophet and imams as the authoritative source of knowledge. Its claimed that believing on the divine knowledge and infallibility as well as the authority of the sayings of imams is incompatible with the completion of revelation.  This article aims to provide these and other related doubts with well reasoned answers.  First the main sources of imams’ knowledge are pointed out. So the sayings of imams are: 1) Quotations relating the holy prophet 2) relating from the divine book   3) interpreting the holy book and Sunnah   and finally 4) divine inspirations.  It is argued that according to holy Qur’an and Sunnah   some people may enjoy a sort of divine knowledge and their sayings may serve as an authority for others. Anyhow, they are not regarded as prophet. Therefore there is no inconsistency between the completion of Prophethood and the social political authoritativeness of imams. In the end, the role of imams as the saviors’ and guardians of Shariah is highlighted. In conclusion the function and place of intellect in understanding the religious texts in the absence of prophet is discussed.  In meantime the paradoxes in Dr. Sorush’s views on this issue is reviewed.

 

Key words: completion of Prophethood, Shariah, divine knowledge, prophet , intellect

 

A Critique of Religious Pluralism

Ali Akbar Rashad

 

Following a scholarly dialogue between the author of the article and Professor John Hick, thetheoretician of religious pluralism, on the December 13th 2002 in Birmingham University Professor John Hick was formally invited to visit The Institute for Islamic Culture and Thought. Addressing a gathering of Iranian Scholars held on 3/2/1384 in Institute for Islamic Culture and Thought he focused on explaining and defending religious pluralism. Prior to Hick's address the author briefed on the importance of Hick’s theory and its scientific vulnerabilities. The confusion in the definition of religious pluralism, the ambiguity and rather the puzzlement in the scope of the theory, ambiguity in the justifiability of the basis of  pluralism ( be it ontological, epistemological, or sociological basis) the difficulty in Kantian epistemological model which serves as the basis for the epistemological explanation of  the theory, the theory's internal paradoxes , the improper authorities and  citations to explain and defend the theory were among the flaws of religious pluralism  pointed out by the author. This essay is an account of the key points raised in that session. On the request of Professor John Hick a detailed version of critiques along with Hick’s answers will be published in the coming issues of the journal.  

Islam and Religious Pluralism

John hick

 

This article aims to present a clear horizon of religious pluralism and its relation with different religions including Christianity and Islam in particular.

To this end, first exclusivisim and inclusivism are discussed. Reviewing inclusivism and exclusivisim John Hick, the founder of contemporary theory of religious pluralism, defends religious pluralism and maintains that it is the only justification for religious diversity. In his view, the rightfulness and the salvation in life is not a monopoly of a single religion. Every religion shares an equal degree of rightfulness and salvation. He believes that there will be no peace among world religions as far as every religion believes itself to be the superior.  A sustainable and peace and true dialogue can occur only when we accept that different religions are different but equally valid interpretations of the ultimate reality and God. He also believes that pluralistic thoughts stems from the eastern and Islamic thought. In other words, the east not the west is the origin of religious pluralism. As cases in point, he cites from Khajah Abdullah Ansari, Mwlana and Ibn Arabi.

 

Key words: religious pluralism, religious exclusivism, religious inclusivism, ultimate reality, God, phenomenon, noumenon, mystical approaches, religions, Islam, Christianity.     

 

Religious Pluralism, Critique and Solution

Mohammad Mohammad Rezaei

 

This article aims to study one of the major issues in the field of religious researches, namely religious pluralism. According to the theory of religious pluralism all (or at least the divine) religions enjoy an equal degree of rightfulness and salvation.

First, different interpretations of religious pluralism are discussed with an emphasis on the theory of John Hicks, the pioneer of religious pluralism in contemporary world.

The article has reviews the basis of religious pluralism which is the phenomenon and noumen theory of Knowledge by Kant It is proved that accepting such basis leads one to agnosticism in knowing the reality. Then the other basis of religious pluralism i.e religious experience is discussed. Answering to the question raised by John Hospers on religious pluralism the author acknowledges religious experience as a source of knowledge. He also discusses the different interpretations of seeing and experience of God from an Islamic mystical perspective. The author presents a proper solution for these varying interpretations which differs from John Hicks pluralism in a number of ways. The article concludes by elaborating the Quranic view on seeing God.

 

Key words: religious pluralism, rightfulness, salvation, religious experience, phenomenon, noumenon, John Hick, Religious plurality, mystical experience

 

An Investigation into John Hick's Pluralism

Reza Akbari

 

John Hick’s theory of religious pluralism is an ontological pluralistic theory. According to this theory every religion per se is a valid path for human's approach to the ultimate reality. The God in all religions is realities for the followers of that religion while the reality per se has ineffable substantial and transcategorical properties. Hick's theory suffers a number of flaws. First, his theory as a second order analysis of religions    is not regarded as a right analysis. Secondly, in rejecting naturalism he is caught in an epistemological circle. Thirdly in his theory the distinction among substantial and formal properties fade away. It seems that Hick, in arguing for the validity of all religions to connect human being to ultimate reality, has committed a category mistake.

 

The Transcendent Unity of Religions

Ali Reza Qaemi Nia

 

The transcendent unity of religions is a traditionalist’s approach towards the plurality of religions.  For the first time it was Schuon who developed this theory in his book “The Transcendentl Unity of Religions”. Other traditionalist raised and expanded the theory.  According to this theory religions have two esoteric and exoteric dimensions. Religions are united only in the esoteric level. But from an exoteric point of view they are different from each other. The realities concerning the exoteric level are relative and the realities pertaining to the esoteric level are absolute. Schoun’s viewpoint suffers from a number of problems such as relativism, and irrationality. The language applied by Schuon to express his view is a difficult language but the author has attempted to explain the theory of the transcendent unity of religions in an easy way and point out the flaws of this theory.

 

Key words: transcendent unity of religions, esoteric and exoteric realms, philosophia perennis, the universality of religion, the true religion

 

An Assessment of john Hick's Pluralism from Imam Khomeini's Point of View

Hamid Parsaneia

 

The tolerance and leniency are social behaviors which occur in their own conceptual frameworks. Social pluralism based on religious knowledge and the theological pluralism of salvation is a kind   of interpretation of tolerance and leniency which utilizes the modern philosophical grounds. By this approach, John hick, as a priest has attempted to give a new interpretation of Christianity in transition from historical definition of church. Explaining the interpretation of Imam Khomeini as the representative of traditional Islam   this article reviews the John Hick’s theory on the basis of Imam Khomeini’s theoretical and cognitive basis.

 

The Process of Emergence and Evolution of John Hick’s Pluralistic Theory and its Incoherencies

 

Abdul Hussein Khosrow Panah

 

Religious pluralism did not take form in John hick's mind   in one stroke, rather it has developed through a process of struggle against racialism, tolerance and leniency towards the followers of other religions, believing in rightfulness and salvation of all major trends of religious thoughts, and acknowledging the rightfulness of claims made by various religions. These processes led to the formation and evolution of pluralism theory and presentation of criteria for the assessment of religious beliefs. However, in the heart of each of these circles other events have happened. Each of these phases and events suffer from paradoxes and incoherencies which are discussed in this article.

 

Key words: religious pluralism, salvation, religious beliefs, assessment criteria.

 

 

 

A Critique of Argument Made on Religious Pluralism from Holy Qur’an

 

Mohammad Hasan Qadrdan Qaramaliki

To defend their hypothesis the proponents of religious pluralism have resorted to many reasons including Holy Qur’an. The author has sorted and categorized and criticized their Quranic arguments which consist of twenty verses and five category as under: 1- Islam as the absolute submission; 2- the plurality of religion as the will of God; 3- Using the term serat ul mostaqim as indefinite article (nakera); 4-tawhid and good deed as the criteria for guidance; 5- praising followers of heavenly books

 

Key words: religious pluralism, Islam, religions, the right path, good deeds, followers of divine religions, salvation 

 

 

 

The Diversity of Pluralism

Syed Majid Zahiri

 

Pluralism, an implication of diversity in the different ontological and cognitive areas, is by itself a diverse phenomenon with different functions and meanings. The article first attempts to introduce different meanings and functions of pluralism considering each ones particular framework. Reviewing the relation between different kinds of pluralism in terms of their order and priority It, then, scrutinizes the implications of this diversity and discusses the roots of pluralistic approaches and their background in the views of philosophers such Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, William James and etc. in conclusion pointing to some logical classifications of pluralism, three areas of pluralism i.e. cognitive pluralism, religious pluralism and ethical pluralism  are examined in  an analytical descriptive manner.

 

Key words: ontological pluralism, epistemological pluralism, descriptive-cognitive pluralism, Normative-cognitive pluralism,  religious pluralism, ethical pluralism, descriptive relativism normative relativism    

 

 

 

 

The Necessity of Unity of knowing Subject in Kant’s

 Critical Philosophy

Hussein Kalbasi Ashtari

 

Explaining and justifying the unit of subject or the perceptive faculty that, besides enjoying divers epistemic powers and plural cognitive activities, maintains its unique united aspect has been one of the main concerns of philosophers.  In addition to the considerable differences among the principles and methods of classical and modern psychological experts and the commitment and belief to unity of subject has not faded away. Although in Kant’s critical philosophy there is no room for knowledge and theoretical awareness on the nature and essence of soul, its shown in this article that the founder of critical philosophy has not been able to refrain from surrendering and confessing to this aspect of knowing agent and has, consciously or unconsciously, acknowledged the necessity of oneness of   recognizing soul.

 

38

3 Philosophical Theology or Rational Approach to Religion

By: Ayatollah Ja‘far Sobhani

3/ The Necessity for the Establishment of the (Islamic) Philosophy of Religion, the logic of the Discovery of Religion, and the Philosophy of Religious Knowledge

AliAkbar Rashad

4/ Changes and Newness in Theology

By: Ali Rabbani Golpayegani

5/ The Relation of Theology and Ethics

By: Dr Mohammad Mohammad-Rezaei

6/ The Shiite Theology

Historical Eras and Intellectual approaches

By: Mohammad Safar Jebraeili

7/ Is the Shiite Theology Influential or Influenceable?

By: Mohammad Reza Kashefi

8/ Theology, Philosophy of Religion and Kalam

By: Ramazan Alitabar Firouzjaei

8/ The philosophical structuer of Kalam

By:Sayyed Mohammad Ali Dibaji

9/Muslim Theology

The Factors and Background of Its Appearance

By: Safar Ali Jebraeili

Philosophical Theology or Rational Approach to Religion

By: Ayatollah Ja‘far Sobhani[1]

 

This article is going to study the divine religions, especially the religion of Islam rationally. Are the Islamic doctrines completely nolens volens, and rationalization and rational analysis of any kind is forbidden, and we must only believe in them, or there is a close relation between rationality and Islam, and many of its doctrines are rationally interpretable? The author believes that rationality is the maxim of all divine religions, especially the religion of the Last Prophet. In addition, religion is compatible with science, and in the Qur’an, the teachings, even the Unity, is talked about rationally and reasonably. We see this compatibility of rationality and religious doctrines also in Hadith, following the Qur’an.

The author, then, studies the historical background of the separation of rationality and religion. He believes that the origin of this separation is in the age of paganism and the period of the ruling of the Umayyads and even the Abassids, and Christianity. At the end, he asserts that such an approach is against the doctrines of the Qur'an and Hadith.

Keywords:rationality, philosophical theology, religion, the religion of Islam, separation of reason and religion, devoutness, the Qu'ran, rational demonstration and argument.

 

The Necessity for the Establishment of the (Islamic) Philosophy of Religion, the logic of the Discovery of Religion, and the Philosophy of Religious Knowledge

By: Ali Akbar Rashad[2]

 

Nowadays many new questions have arisen on the most important problems of religion, the discovery of religious propositions, and on religious knowledge. To answer these questions, we need to expand our understanding and innovation in four aspects of ‘understanding’ ‘concepts’ ‘making others understand’ and ‘fulfilment’ of religion. The Establishment and arrangement of ‘the philosophy of religion’, ‘the logic of the discovery of religion’ and ‘the philosophy of religious knowledge’ are of the most necessary examples of scientific innovation in the realm of religious studies and devoutness.

The honourable researcher has found a perfect methodical system, after an endeavour of six years’ scientific contemplation for the discovery (understanding) of religion, which he has called ‘the Logic of the Discovery of Religious Propositions and doctrines’. In addition, he suggests another area called ‘the Philosophy of Religious Knowledge’ concerning the necessity of the rational overall study of the religious knowledge. The author of the article emphasizes the necessity of the establishment of an (Islamic) philosophy of religion, as he believes that the philosophy of the absolute religion is impossible, for the simple reason that philosophers of religion think of the established religions, and not the revealed religions, as the subject- matter of the philosophy of religion. In this article, the author has tried to explain the connection, distinction and relation of these domains with one another, besides explaining the necessity of their establishment and suggesting their definitions, ends and missions.

‘Qabasat’ welcomes scientific criticism and opinions about the claims of the article.

Keywords:religious reconsideration, religious knowledge, the understanding of religion, the foundations of the discovery of religion, religious studies, the philosophy of religion, the logic of the discovery of religion, philosophy of religious knowledge.

 

Changes and Newness in Theology

By: Ali Rabbani Golpayegani[3]

 

Changes in theology, like other sciences, have occurred quantitatively and qualitatively, namely theological problems have gradually increased, as well as some changes that have occurred in foundations, methods and standpoints of theology. These changes have some specifications in the modern world, for the reason of which we know it as modern theology, contrasted with the old or traditional theology. These changes and modernity have their origins in the West after the Renaissance and the modern and post- modern eras. The changes that occurred in various aspects: philosophic, cultural, political and social, faced the Christian theology with some serious challenges, and caused the Christian theologists react differently. Some of them decided to present religion, using different methods, through considering religious doctrines and explaining them, appropriate to the modern spiritual and cultural atmosphere, so that the modern man could understand and accept it, and thus the modern theology was born. Friedrich Schleiermacher, Rudolf Bultmann and Paul Tillich were among the modern Christian theologists, who each presented a specific method and approach in the Christian theology.

The new changes in the realm of culture, politics, philosophy, and other aspects of human society gradually entered the Muslim world and challenged the Islamic theology in the same way, and caused the Muslim theologists to react differently. Some argued that these changes have originated in the West, so they are illegitimate and it is not right to talk about and discuss them at all. Others decided to interpret the religious doctrines according to the changes, believing that the changes are the outcome of the intellectual and scientific development of modern man, and therefore are a part of them, and if the doctrines are not interpretable, put them aside. Some others chose eclecticism. However, some members of the intellectual elite such as Allamah (Savant) Tabatabaei and Master Motahhari chose to welcome these positive changes in the realm of empirical sciences and political and social problems and reveal the philosophical and theological shortcomings of the West. They chose to show the modern man a wise and moderate way, using the Islamic Philosophical and theological foundations. This approach helped them to guard the bounds of religion and true revelational doctrines, together with benefiting themselves of the modern scientific

Keywords:the Islamic theology, the Christian theology, traditional theology, modern theology, changes and modernity.

 

The Relation of Theology and Ethics

By: Dr Mohammad Mohammad-Rezaei[4]

 

In this article, we study the relation of theology and ethics. At the beginning, we suggest some definitions of theology and ethics: theology is the science of explanation, proof and rational and demonstrative advocacy of religious beliefs. Ethics is the science of the judgements that the practical reason makes about the goodness and badness of human actions and what he must and what must not do. Then we talk briefly about two viewpoints on the relation of theology and ethics: 1.Theology is prior to ethics. 2. Ethics is prior to theology.

In the first viewpoint, first we must prove the existence of God and his attributes through rational arguments. Then explain that from their point of view ethics is based on the dogma that whatever God commands is good and whatever He prohibits is bad. Next, we talk about the problems of this viewpoint and the answers by its supporters. In dealing with the second attitude, first we talk about the viewpoint of the great German philosopher Kant, and then criticize it. After that, we present the viewpoint of the Muslim thinkers and prove that ethical propositions are prior to theology.

Keywords:theology, ethics, practical reason, theoretical reason, good, bad, divine orders, divine prohibitions, goodness and badness, God, ethical argument, rational argument.

 

The Shiite Theology

Historical Eras and Intellectual approaches

By: Mohammad Safar Jebraeili[5]

 

Theology, like other sciences and perhaps more, has its particular process of changes and developments. Therefore, it is a historically developed science and we need to study the history of its problems and topics according to what the theologists, in the different eras and stages of history, assert, in order to present a correct picture of its process of changes, although unfortunately theologists have neglected and lacked paying attention to this important point. However, in recent decades, the serious necessity of the problem has caused some to pay more attention to it, and even it has gone on the curriculum of some specialized centres of the course.

For this reason, the Shiite theologists have had different approaches, which one of the factors of their choice has been the historical and geographical conditions, although they have benefited the same aim and have had the privilege of a common characteristic of presentation of theological topics. Sometimes there has been an approach in a geographical district and a historical era, that there has not been in other conditions and eras.

The present article is going to present a general picture of the historical eras of the Shiite theology, and introduce briefly the general approaches of the Shiite theologists.

Keywords:change and verification, being historically developed; quotation, reason and philosophy; textualism, rationalism, interpretative, philosophical rationalism.

 

Is the Shiite Theology Influential or Influenceable?

By: Mohammad Reza Kashefi[6]

 

There is no doubt that in the Islamic scientific community many sects lived together and had intellectual exchanges, so each of them influenced others or was influenced by them. The Shiite theology, as a distinct epistemic system and approach, was no different. However, this did not mean that the Shiite theology appeared on the intellectual base of a certain theological sect and was influenced, to a wide extent, by the foundations, approaches, methods and problems of the sect.

In the present writing we study the above, and through analysis and ratiocination make it clear that firstly the Shiite theology, although has profited from the Mu’tazilite theology in some cases, has in no way been influenced by it thoroughly and profoundly; on the contrary it has influence it. Secondly the Shiite theology, not only is not full of theological opinions of the exaggerators, but also has criticized and disapproved of them in many cases. Thirdly, although the Shiite theology is close to some belief doctrines of the Ismaili sect, it is distinct from it fundamentally and for its particular approach.

Keywords: the Shiite theology, the Mu’tazilite theology, exaggeration, the Ismailis, belief doctrines, theologists, influentiality, being influenceable.

 

Theology, Philosophy of Religion and Kalam

By: Ramazan Alitabar Firouzjaei[7]

 

Among various sciences, especially in the realm of religious studies, some have close relations from the aspects of subject- matter, method and domain, to the extent that some think of them as one science, although they each have a distinct and independent title. In the realm of religious studies, sciences such as theology, philosophy of religion and  first philosophy are among these sciences and their topics are sometimes confused during researches. Therefore, in the present research I am trying to show the boundaries between these sciences, and their differences and similarities.

To determine the domain of each of these sciences, first I discuss theology and its related problems. Then I explain the similarities and differences between this science, first philosophy and philosophy of religion. Moreover, in each of these sciences, we will present the differences between them and their subsets.

Keywords:theology, modern theology, philosophy of theology, philosophical theology, philosophy of religion, first philosophy.

 

 

The philosophical structuer of Kalam

By: Sayyed Mohammad Ali Dibaji[8]

 

Kalam have been changed supply from its begining to now in comparison to others, the three great schools of Kalam - means Motazeleh, Ashaereh and Shiieh - have had the most arguments and much important changings in their courses .

One of the matters that concentrates in the three schools is the relationship between Kalam and philosophy .the basic question is this: what is the relation of them to philosophy? in the other words: in what method and how much the Kalam maked use of the philosophy? and, in what Kind the Kalam was philosophiaizd ?

The essay answers the questions and considers the procces evolution of Kalam. also discourses about the philosophical stracture of shiaeh's  Kalam . that stracture in this school, opposite to others, based on theosophy -thinkings (Hekmat) , which arised first in Alyaqout, a book of Ebrahim Nobakhti (4age) and perfectly in Tajridolateqad, of Nasiroddin Tosi (7 age) theosophy -thinking , the borrowed doctorin from Holly Quran, and Emamat -centeric are tow special attribut of the shiaeh Kalam, both in the living of Emam and in the disappearence of the twelfth Emam.

Keywords:Islamic Kalam, Kalamic schools, (Motazeleh, Ashaereh, Shieh), philosophical stracture, Hekmat (Theosophy), Theosophy- thinking, philosophicalKalam Ontology.

 

Muslim Theology

The Factors and Background of Its Appearance

By: Safar Ali Jebraeili[9]

 

The Islamic theology is purely Islamic and originates from the Qur’an and Hadith. In fact, the factors of the appearance of its topics and problems are the great Qur’an, the Hadiths of the great Prophet and the Imams of the Household (p.b.u.th.). So the date of the appearance of the Islamic theology goes to the age of the Holy Prophet and the revelation of the Qur’an, although, some are trying to make us believe that the Islamic theology originates from the Christian and Jewish theology, and also from the Greek philosophy, because the Mu’tazilites started the Islamic theology, and they were influenced by the Greek philosophy.

The present writing is trying to eliminate this deviation and explain the originality of the Islamic theology. Of course, as will be mentioned, the author does not deny the influence of the external factors such as religious and non- religious cultures, the Greek Philosophy and even the celebrities on the expansion of the Islamic theological topics and problems. He asserts that these factors are the ‘background’, but believes that the origin of the first and main influential factors in the Islamic theology is Islam itself.

Keywords:factors, background, the holy Qur’an, tradition and Hadith, culture, philosophy, the TrMuslim Theology

 


[1]A noble lecturer at the Scientific Howzah of Qum; he is also a religious authority.

[2]Associate Professor at the in Research Institute of the Islamic Culture and Thought.

[3]A lecturer at the Scientific Howzah of Qum.

[4]Associate Professor in the Department of Philosophy at Qom Campus, Tehran University.

[5]Assistant Professor at the Research Institute of the Islamic Culture and Thought.

[6]A member of the Scientific Board at the Research Institute of the Islamic Culture and Thought

6A lecturer at the South Unit of Tehran, the Islamic Open University.

[8]Assistant Professor at the Tehran University.

[9] Assistant Professor at the Research Institute of the Islamic Culture and thought.

39-40

3/ About attributed philosophies/ Ali AkbarRashad

3/ What are philosophy of religion and its topics? / Mohammad Mohammad-Rezaei

4/ Philosophy of Religion/ Abolfazl Sajedi

5/ philosophy of mystical Experience/ Hadi Wakili

5/ Philosophy ofEthics/ Hasan Mo'allemi

6/ Philosophy of education/ Saeid Beheshti

7/ Philosophy of Theology/ Mohammad-safar Jebreali

7/An overview to logic, meta-logic and the philosophy of logic / Askar Soleimani Amiri

8/ philosophy of Islamic philosophy/ Abdol-Hosein khosro-panah

8/ The philosophy of transcendental theosophy/ Hasan Panahi Azad

9/ Philosophy of Quranic Knowledge/ Ali Nasiri

9/ Philosophy of interpretation/ Hamid Khoda-Bakhshian

10/ Philosophy of jurisprudence, a new-based knowledge/Rasool Naderi

10/ Islamic Philosophy of politics/  Gholam-reza Behrooz-lak

11/ About the philosophy of history/ Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari

11/ An introduction to the philosophy of art in the view of great Islamic philosophers/ Hosein Hashem-Nejad

12/ Philosophy of Medicine/Ahmad-Reza Hemmati

 

 

About attributed philosophies

Ali-Akbar Rashad

The author of this article has tried, although very briefly, to mention the important discussions of attributed philosophies, including: proposing a special definition for attributed philosophy, emphasis on the possibility and necessity of Islamic attributed philosophies, offering some criterion for division and classification of attributed philosophies, ….

The author considers attributed philosophies as branches of philosophy in its general meaning and sees them in charge of a rational-external study of basic matters of its "determinant". The author has offered three types of divisions for attributed philosophies. For example the determinant or belonging of attributed philosophies is either a collection of knowledge systems or category of non-knowledge system, the first one is first degree knowledge and the second is a second degree knowledge.

 

Keywordsphilosophy, attributed philosophy, second degree knowledge, rational-external study, various types of attributed philosophies, Islamic wisdom, intellectual sciences.

What are philosophy of religion and its topics?

Mohammad Mohammad-Rezaei

This article will try to discuss and investigate what are philosophy of religion and its topics. This subject might look simple at the beginning but by a deeper insight, it becomes clear that the definition of philosophy of religion is very difficult and debatable. As a consequence of the uncertainty of its definition, its discussions are uncertain as well.

The definition of philosophy of religion depends on the definitions of philosophy and religion and they are so widely and differently defined that it is difficult to present an exact definition for them as well. The definition of philosophy is evaluated and is clarified that philosophy does not have a single method to philosophize and we can even consider religion as a philosophical school. There are also many different definitions for religion, so that it is not possible to present a single definition for it.

Many religious researchers have thus tried to mention different aspects of religion or the characters that constitute religion. Therefore, we must introduce our specific definition for religion in the philosophy of religion.

Finally on the basis of the different definitions of philosophy and religion, it is tried to give a definition for philosophy of religion that has less criticisms:

Philosophy of religion is an intellectual activity in order to show rationality of religion and justify its basic elements and doctrines and show their consistency with each other, or in order to deny them and evaluate them critically.

 

Keywords: philosophy, religion, intellectual theology, theology, aspects of religion, rational activity.

Philosophy of Religion

Abolfazl Sajedi

In the present century, many questions have been raised for religion-researchers. Many of these questions are concentrated on philosophy of religion. This article investigates what the philosophy of religion is. Achieving this goal is only possible by referring to its background, similar and close concepts. Thus it's necessary to have a look at expressions such as theology, philosophical and natural theology, religious-research, old and new theology. Among these terms, one which is closer to the philosophy of religion and has more in contact with it, and used frequently in the works of Moslem intellectuals, is theology, specifically the new theology. Thus for clarifying similar terms to the philosophy of religion in this article, I have a special attention to its distinction from new theology. Finding out this distinction depends on discovering "new theology". In this regard, after a short explanation of the meaning of the old theology, I have divided the present theories regarding new theology into its supporters and deniers. Then on the basis of the accepted theory, I have mentioned the distinctive characters between philosophy of religion and new theology. At the end, I have discussed the topics of philosophy of religion and the possibility of having an Islamic approach.

 

Keywords: religious-research, natural theology, philosophical theology, new theology, the basis of religious discovering, philosophy of religion.

Philosophy of mystical Experience

Hadi Wakili

All major spiritual traditions around the globe develop paths to salvation have particular teachings and protect the deposit of their beliefs and shared faith. Each religion translates the original mystical experience of its founder in terms of their own cultural heritage.

A philosophy of religion tries to understand the nature of the Divine, irrespective of these cultural differents.A philosophies of mysticism goes a step further and tries to grasp the nature of the experience founding the original community.

The philosophy of mysticism includes some subjects such as the nature of mysticism and mystical experience, varieties of mystical experiences, the relationship between mystical experiences and religious experiences, mystical epistemology, the language of mysticism and many other philosophical investigations and considerations on mystical experiences.

In this Article we try to refer to these issues in base of the most valid philosophical and mystical works, hoping that in which the researchers and other readers interested in the field of philosophy, mysticism and philosophy of mysticism may find their favorite subjects and develop some of them. 

 

Keywords: mysticism, philosophy of mysticism, mystical experience, religious experience, attributed philosophy,philosophy

Philosophy of Ethics

Hasan Mo'allemi

Various sciences have appeared in the field of ethics, and each of them considers a specific aspect of it. For example, ethics, descriptive ethics, philosophy of ethics, ….

Philosophy of ethics considers imaginative and affirmative principles of ethics and its discussions can be arranged as follows:

1- Imaginative principles like the meaning of ought to and ought not to, good and bad, responsibility, value, obligation.

2- Affirmative principles like the nature of ethical propositions, the documents of ethical propositions, the criterion for ethical propositions, universality of ethical propositions, the relation between ought to and to be.

3- The system of Islam's ethics and its principles.

Necessities of Islamic philosophy are as follows: giving an ethical system with all its details, extraction of philosophy of ethics from Quran and the tradition, explaining far and close results of an Islamic ethical system.

 

Keywords: philosophy of ethics, ought to and ought not, practical intellect, theoretical intellect, universality of ethical rules, ethical values

Philosophy of education

Saeid Beheshti

Philosophy of education, as a attributed philosophies, can be investigated from two perspectives: the perspective of philosophers about education, and as a university field.

According to the first view, philosophy of education has a history as long as thinking and theorizing of philosophy about training in the east and west, but according to the second point of view it is one century old.

Different concepts and definitions are presented for the philosophy of education, depending on the kind of perspective and its related philosophical basis: deduction of educative theories from philosophical basis, use of philosophy in education, special theory of education, analysis and processing of educational concepts and propositions, and the like. The author of this article considers philosophy of education to be illustration and justification of imaginative and affirmative principles of education and will investigate philosophy of education in the three levels of pre-deduction or recovery, deduction or discovery, and meta-deduction or creation. Designation and execution of some management s and solutions in the three levels of recovery, discovery and creation is the basic condition for establishment of Islamic philosophy of education.

Philosophy of education has passed changes that can be recognized and analyzed in two steps, including an analytic approach. Presently, philosophy of education is in the meta-analytic level in the west and includes various perspectives and approaches.

 

Keywordsphilosophy of education, concept of philosophy of education, changes of philosophy of education, education, attributed philosophy, philosophy.

Philosophy of Theology

Mohammad-safar Jebreali

Philosophy of theology is one of the attributed philosophies that has come to the attention of scholars in the present century. Although western scholars have previously worked on this subject and have paid more attention to it, but recently Muslim scholars have studied this subject as well and have not neglected it. Philosophy of theology looks externally at theology's discussions and themes and offers a descriptive- analytic report of them.

This article is a summary of the author's notes in this topic. I have tried to briefly report some of the related discussions in which the correlation between theology and other sciences is more elaborated.

Keywords: philosophy of theology, theology, attributed philosophy, philosoph.y

 

An overview to logic, meta-logic and the philosophy of logic

Askar Soleimani Amiri

By appearance of the attributed philosophies, collection of the philosophy of logic seems unavoidable, and the present article is a review of the old logic discussions and an inspection in them to achieve related philosophical questions, questions that Muslim logicians have themselves answered to some of them in the midst of their logical discussions, and some of these questions should be discussed and answered in philosophy of logic.

There is no doubt that discussions can be mentioned in the field of philosophy of logic is much more than what is mentioned here. This article has tried to mention questions of philosophy of logic on the basis of old logic, but occasionally, some philosophical questions are mentioned which are not irrelevant to old logic, like…the validity of the table of value depends on the validity of disjunctive and conjunctive.

 

Keywords:logic, trans-logic, philosophy of logic, old logic, new logic.

philosophy of Islamic philosophy

Abdol-Hosein khosro-panah

Attributed philosophies have appeared in the two fields of philosophy of science and philosophy of facts. Philosophy of science is an external-vision knowledge of scientific fields which is descriptive-analytic and philosophy of facts is an internal-vision knowledge of real and imaginary phenomenon which is descriptive-reasonable.

The philosophy of Islamic philosophy is an external-vision knowledge of Islamic philosophy and the approaches of Peripateticist, Illuminationist, Sadraist and the outstanding figures of Islamic theology.

In addition to explaining the KEY WORDs mentioned in the definition and methodology of research, this article discusses different kinds of philosophies of scientific fields and their subjects and also the difference between "the eight outlines" and the philosophies of sciences. At the end, fourteen important questions of the philosophy of Islamic philosophy has been explained.

 

Keywords: Attributed philosophy, philosophy of sciences, philosophy of facts, philosophy of Islamic philosophy.

The philosophy of transcendental theosophy

Hasan Panahi Azad

The philosophy of Islamic philosophy is an external-structure look at Islamic philosophy; which philosophy of transcendental theosophy is one of its branches. Molla-Sadra established a mental-philosophical system which consisted methods and privileges of its previous schools and rather had more privileges. He considered the needs and requirements of his time and designed a system to provide appropriate solutions and enough answers to the rational and cultural questions of the time. In this system he used reason, mysticism and revelation together to achieve his goal and by making correlation among the three, he tried to solve various philosophical, mental and convictional problems in a horizon above theology and dispute. Discussions included in this article are: what is  transcendental theosophy, its subject, objective, domain, methodology, its relation to other schools, reasons of its establishment, and its pathology.

Keywords: philosophy of transcendental theosophy, what is transcendental philosophy, domain of transcendental philosophy, philosophy of being, philosophy of soul, philosophy of cognition.

Philosophy of Quranic Knowledge

Ali Nasiri

Islamic sciences is a collection of external Quranic knowledge that makes us familiar with Quran and the methods of its interpretation. This knowledge appeared a little after revelation of the Quran and progressed with the guidance of Prophet and Ahl-al-Beit (People of house), peace be upon them, and some of the companions and followers and has passed a long and difficult way in fifteen centuries. The Quranic knowledge works and writings we have today is a valuable resource that we have inherited from the past and has offered well services in various fields of Quranology. What is important today for the inheritors of this knowledge is to have an external revision and research and an epistemological second-degree approach to this knowledge, which is called "philosophy of Quranic knowledge ". Doing this, besides recognizing what this inheritance is, we will explain its deficiencies and weakness and will think of a solution to remove them.

The present article is written for this goal and the author has considered five matters that are as follows:

1. What is Quranic knowledge?, 2. Historical stages of formation of Quranic knowledge, 3. Correlation or interference of some parts of Quranic knowledge with other Islamic knowledge, 4. Methodology of Quranic knowledge's discussions, 5. Deficiencies of Quranic knowledge.

 

KeywordsQuranic knowledge, Quranic knowledge, methodology of Quranic knowledge, interpretational traditions, Quranic literature.

Philosophy of interpretation

Hamid Khoda-Bakhshian

What is philosophy of interpretation? What are we looking for in this knowledge? What are the key topics and discussions of philosophy of interpretation? What knowledge is related to interpretation(?)? Why do we have various interpretations? These questions and some others are the main goals of the writers of this article and it will try to answer them.

Keywords:philosophy of interpretation, interpretation, philosophy, interpretation of Quran, presuppositions of interpretation.

Philosophy of jurisprudence

Rasool Naderi

What is philosophy of jurisprudence? Is it descriptive or instructional? What are its propositions? Is it necessary to establish this knowledge? What effects does it have on Jurisprudence? This article has tried to answer these questions.

 

Keywords:philosophy of jurisprudence, jurisprudence, philosophy, principles of jurisprudence, realm of jurisprudence, definition of  jurisprudence.

Islamic Philosophy of politics

Gholam-reza Behrooz-lak

Philosophy of politics is one type of the attributed philosophies, which unlike some others, has a long life. It seems more exact to use 'philosophy of politics' for the meaning of philosophical speculations in political actions, although 'political philosophy' is also a commonly used expression. There are opposite opinions about attributing 'Islamic' to philosophy of politics. The common meaning of Islamic philosophy of politics is the philosophy of Muslim's politics, although it is somehow acceptable to use philosophy of politics in the sense of being affected by principles and pre-suppositions attained from Islamic doctrines and also in the sense of existence of rational-reasoning inferences in religious texts. This article is an attempt to explain the concepts of Islamic philosophy of politics, its schools, methodology and discussions.

 

Keywords:philosophy of politics, philosophy, politics Islamic philosophy, attributed philosophy

About the philosophy of history

Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari

We assume that the views on 'history' and the tradition of history-writing, and on this basis, theoretical and meditative look at history, which is called 'philosophy of history', can be generally divided into old and modern times. In the old and traditional perspective, 'history' is not independent from 'being', rather it is one manifestation of being and is usually considered as an unveiling of divine will, while according to the modern perspective, which comes out of eighteenth century or enlightened era of Europe, history is seen to be independent from the world and is analyzed and interpreted in relation with the knowledge of subject and particular will. In fact, what is attributed to the general will and world's nature in the traditional and original view, is attributed to human's reasoning and understanding in the modern view; and naturally, this difference in the basics ends up in different methods and results.

This article, besides explaining how the modern perspective about history developed and its differences with previous views, will also explain some characteristics of looking at history on the basis of a religious thought.

Keywords:philosophy of history, history, philosophy, universal history, tradition of history.

An introduction to the philosophy of art in the view of great Islamic philosophers

Hosein Hashem-Nejad

Philosophy of art discusses non-artistic principles and basis of art, in other words, discusses philosophical principles of art. Although Islamic philosophers do not allocate an independent section on philosophy of art in their works, but they have sparsely mentioned points, among different discussions, that fit in philosophy of art, as it is in the case of epistemology and philosophy of science.

One of the main topics of philosophy of art is the discussion of beauty. Islamic philosophers have special views and definitions about beauty. According to Islamic theologians, the existing beauties of this world are specific and imperfect manifestations of the absolute beauty, which is God. The second main discussion of philosophy of art is the role of imagination in the appearance of artistic works. Islamic theologians have elaborately discussed imagination, imagination faculty, the imaginary world and its effects on the appearance of artistic works like poems.

On the other hand, according to the transcendental view of Sadra in philosophy of art, the root of art is known to be some Divine Names and attributes such as The Creatorness of God and 'His Being The Best Creator'. He explains that every human is God's successor and the inheritor of the Divine attributes in an analogical gradation manner. By creating works, depending on their capability, artists are also emanators of these Names and attributes. In addition, Islamic theologians have a transcendental view of representations that is intensely different from the views of Plato and Aristotle in this regard and is much deeper than them.

Keywords: art, philosophy of art, beauty, imagination, representations, poem, music, Divine beauty, value, adornment, joy, industry, craft.

Philosophy of Medicine

Ahmad-Reza Hemmati

The history of philosophical speculations in medical subjects is as long as medicine and philosophy. During all era, critic thinkers in medicine and philosophy have tried to comprehend and practice some level of medicine that cannot be achieved by methodology of medicine itself. In recent times (especially in the past thirty years), this discussion has been raised: is there a proper field of research named philosophy of medicine or is it possible to exist? If it exists, what are its discussions? Is it a separate field or it’s a branch of philosophy of science? What is the relation between this field and the emerged domain of medical ethics? These questions and some similar questions have been center of the main discussions of "philosophy of medicine" for many years and although since then, we have not achieved a consensus in this regard, but different thinkers have defined this field and have specified a structure for it. Philosophy of medicine can be known as the most practical kind of the attributed philosophies, because the concepts that are investigated in it, includes completely all social, economical and political fields of society. This article discussed history of this field and its important topics.

Keywords: philosophy of medicine, medicine ethics, normative approach, abnormal approach, medical epistemology.

 

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