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41

3/ Demonstrations for Proving God’s Existence/ Mohammad Mohammad-Rezaei

3/ Possibility or impossibility of a priori or a posteriori demonstration for God’s existence/ Askari Soleimani Amiri

4/ Proving God in the Holy Quran/ Mohammad Hasan Qadrdan Qaramaleki

4/ Explaining Miracles and Unordinary Events to Prove God’s Existence and Investigating Their Indication/ Abd-ol-Hosein Khosro-Panah

4/ An Analysis of Cosmological Demonstrations and its Comparison with Possibility and Necessity Demonstration in Islamic Philosophy/

Hamid Reza Ayat-allahi

5/ Plantinga and the Position of Reasoning in Believing God/

Ali Rabani Golpayegani

5/ Investigating the Anselm Existential Demonstration for Proving God's Existence/

Towhid Abdi

6/ Godel's ontological Argument/ Hadi Wakili

6/ A Philosophical Analysis of God's Reappearance/

Mortaza Karbalaei-loo

7/ New Logic and Theology (The uses of new logic systems in solving theological problems)/

Seyyed Majid Zahiri

7/ Criticizing Allameh Tabatabaei's Exposition of Seddighin Demonstration/ Mahdi Hajian

8/ Views of Refutation in the Criticism of the Theory of Indemonstrability of the Pre-Eternal Necessary Proposition/

Ahad Faramarz Gharamaleki

8/ Refutation in Refutation (An answer to the criticism of the theory of indemonstrability of pre-eternal necessary proposition)/

Mohammad Hasan Ghadrdan Gharamaleki

 

Demonstrations for Proving God’s Existence

Mohammad Mohammad-Rezaei

This article will try to make a clear horizon for the demonstrations of proving God’s existence. There have been different perspectives about God’s existence since early times. Some consider God’s existence self evident because there is nothing more obvious than God to discover God by it. Some others have made demonstrations for God’s existence that are themselves divided into two groups:

A. God’s existence can be proved a priori such that creatures are not intermediates to prove God’s existence. These demonstrations are as follows: 1. Seddiqin demonstration,  2. Existential demonstration, 3. Innate demonstration, 4. Ethical demonstration,        5. Rationality demonstration.

B. God’s existence can be proved with a posteriori demonstration such that creatures are intermediates to prove God’s existence. These demonstrations are as follows: 1. Causal demonstration, 2. Possibility and necessity demonstration, 3. Religious experience demonstration, 4. Order demonstration, 5. Movement demonstration, 6. Demonstrations of degrees of perfection, 7. Miracle demonstration, 8. Proposition of dissolution of decisions.

All of these demonstrations are briefly explained in this article.

Key words:God, God’s existence, demonstrations of proving God’s existence, a priori demonstration, a posteriori demonstration, self evidence of God’s existence.

 

 

Possibility or impossibility of a priori or a posteriori demonstration for God’s existence

Askari Soleimani Amiri

Muslim philosophers have presented various demonstrations for God’s existence in theology in its more particular sense, and have mentioned, regarding God’s attributes, that God’s existence is not demonstrable. In addition demonstration is divided into a priori and a posteriori in logic and a priori demonstration is not applicable to God and absolute a posteriori demonstration is not as definite as reason. It will become clear, in this research, that absolute a posteriori demonstration and reason is definite in some special circumstances, and although having a priori demonstration for God is not possible, absolute and definite a posteriori demonstration is possible, and the purpose of philosophers is to deny having a priori demonstration for God’s existence.

 

Key words: a priori demonstration, absolute a posteriori demonstration, reason, necessary existent, existential demonstration, Seddiqin demonstration, possibility and necessity demonstration, a priori-like demonstration.

Proving God in the Holy Quran

Mohammad Hasan Qadrdan Qaramaleki

Proving God is one of the important discussions of religious studies which has been posed from the time of emergence of religion until this day and will be talked about in future. This article follows proving God’s existence from the perspective of the Holy Quran, investigates three viewpoints (1. No demonstration, 2. Independent and explicit demonstration, 3. Indirect and implicit demonstration), and prefers the second and third perspectives meaning that some verses mention and prove the subject of understandingGod independently and explicitly (not logically) and some others mention this subject and prove it implicitly. Another part of this article mentions ten rational demonstrations for understanding God (possibility demonstration, Seddiqin, contingency, movement, innate disposition, soul, order, guidance, repulsion of possible threat and occurrence of special events demonstrations) and exposes and analyses the verses that independently or implicitly indicate these demonstrations.

 

Key words: Quran, demonstrations of understanding God, proving God, independent and implicit demonstration.

 

Explaining Miracles and Unordinary Events to Prove God’s Existence and Investigating Their Indication

Abd-ol-Hosein Khosro-Panah

Different religion’s scholars have diverse views about provability of God’s existence. Some not also believe the possibility of provability of God, but have also represented different demonstrations to prove their claim. The demonstration based on miracle and unordinary events is one of the demonstrations used by western scholars to prove God. Molla Ahmad Naraqi has also used this demonstration in his Anis-ol-Movahhedin. While explaining the expositions of late Naraqi, John Hospers, John Hick and Javadi Amoli, this article explains some queries of the critics and their answers.

Key words: miracle demonstration, demonstration of proving God.

An Analysis of Cosmological Demonstrations and its Comparison with Possibility and Necessity Demonstration in Islamic Philosophy

Hamid Reza Ayat-allahi

In the explanation of cosmological demonstrations for proving God’s existence, the expressions of possibility and necessity are used somehow that some have imagined that the two proofs are one proof with two expositions. While presenting an analysis of the cosmological demonstration in its historical reformationin this article, three major movements will be shown for it: explaining the proof in the Greek thought, Thomas’s exposition, and finally its Leibnitz exposition. Then explaining the characteristics of these forms of cosmological proofs, and after showing the central elements of possibility and necessity demonstration in Islamic philosophy, the differences of these two proofs has been explained, especially regarding the philosophical elements existing in them. In addition, the majorcriticisms of cosmological demonstrations are studied and the relation between these criticisms and the possibility and necessity demonstration has been studied.

Key words:demonstration, cosmological, possibility, necessity, causality, endless chain.

Plantinga and the Position of Reasoning in Believing God

Ali Rabani Golpayegani

Plantinga’s most important view is that while believing God is a completely rational and logical belief, but it doesn’t need any rational reasoning. This means that it is one of the real fundamental beliefs. Unlike some who tend to reason– rational theology- who try to make demonstration for God’s existence, and believe that no religion is acceptableunless it is rational and no religion is rational unless it is stressed by context and reason, they believe that except axioms and the sensawhich are the real basic beliefs, the other beliefs are only rationally valuable when they are referred to the mentioned beliefs.

Plantinga identifies the mentioned basis and criterion unfinished and has pointed out some of its defects. He then suggests another criterion for identifying basic beliefs, that is: any belief that doesn’t need any reason to accept it, is a basic belief.

According to the mentioned criterion, Plantinga regards believing God as a basic belief for a religious person. Because if a religious person realizes that his belief is from the kind of beliefs that accepting them is not based on deducing them from other beliefs, his belief will be a real basic belief. In the rest of the article, other criticisms of this theory is mentioned and investigated.

Key words:believe in God, basic beliefs, corrected epistemology, maximal foundational, essential evidence, concluding beliefs, innate disposition, the ones who tend to reason.

Investigating the Anselm Existential Demonstration for Proving God's Existence

Towhid Abdi

This article will study one of the old-time demonstrations of proving God's existence in the history of west philosophy which is known as "existential demonstration" and has been known with this label since Kant's time.

In this article the historical background of this demonstration in Christian philosophy has been explained and its different aspects and expositions has been mentioned and the two expositions of Anselm demonstration has been elaborately explained. In the first exposition, Anselm proves God’s existence through imagining God as the greatestpossible imaginable being and in the second exposition, emphasizes on the necessity of its existence. In this article, I have put attention to philosopher’s viewpoint about existence of one or two types of expositions on “existential demonstration” and I have accepted both of the expositions.

This demonstration has encountered several criticisms during its appearance andemergence which startedby Ghoniloo fromthe time of Anselm himself and continued by Thomas Aquinas and Kant and it is still discussed by people such as John Hick and others. The essence of these criticisms is that just by imagining something, one cannot prove its objective being. I have concluded that no matter how muchthe commentators and acceptors have tried, they have not been able to eliminate the problems of this demonstration which is nothing other than confusion of concept and it’s referent and expecting the effects of an objective beingfrom a conceptual being and also confusion of the boundary between logic and metaphysics.

Key words:demonstrations of proving existence of the necessary, existential demonstration, the most absolute possible being, a priori demonstration, a posteriori demonstration, logical necessity.

Godel's ontological Argument

Hadi Wakili

This Article is originally concentrated on godelian ontological Argument based

On Anselm΄s basic idea and it's versions, such as the one by Hartshorn, for instance. The idea was that God has a property that other individuals lack, namely maximal greatness or perfection. To formalize the idea of a positive property, Godel introduced a positivity operator. Godel's argument also introduces some “God-Language” into the discussion such as: the idea of God-like individual, the essence of an individual and the property of necessary existence. The Article has also some philosophical considerations concerning to leibnizian and plotonian semantic interpretations of godel's argument.

A Philosophical Analysis of God's Reappearance

Mortaza Karbalaei-loo

Seeing God can be discussed in two ways: 1) Seeing God without an intermediary and 2) Seeing God in something else. The first kind of seeing is discussed in the books thatare related to theology, and the possibility of seeing God is denied. This kind of seeing is denied in Qur'an as well.

Nevertheless, seeing God in something else or in a more exact statement, "recognizing God in something else", has a different story and is rather encouraged in religious texts. Recognizing God in other things is not special tothis world or the other. The present article is written to investigate and analyze this assertion of religious people: "God reappears himself in the world". How can this happen about God? Following this discussion, we will talk about possible answers to this questions and will put more intention in analyzing the discussion.

Key words:observing, reappearing, God's names, necessary condition,sufficient condition.

New Logic and Theology

(The uses of new logic systems in solving theological problems)

Seyyed Majid Zahiri

New logic, because of its great growth and development, can be counted as a powerful instrument to explicate philosophical and theological demonstrations. The fact that new logic systems are postulates is a great help to find out the consistency or inconsistency of philosophical and theological proofs. In addition, the importance of making philosophical and theological systems as postulates is known forthe expert and using the new logical advanced systems can be helpful for achieving this important purpose.

In this article by mentioning some examples, I will show themethodsof applying the new logical systems and their importance and the method of postulate in solving some of the most important theological questions.

One of the important and underlyingsubjects of theology is theissue of proving God's existence. It's not a long time that some of the great new logicians are engaged to find strong demonstrationsfor proving God's existence based on the new logic systems. Thus to be familiar withsome different examples of these efforts, the most important onesare mentioned in this research and taking into account the extentof an article, one of these proofs which is based on the new modal logic has been analytically investigated.

Key words:logic, theology, modal logic, free logic, pre-eternal necessary statement, demonstrability, syntax, semantic.

 

 

Criticizing Allameh Tabatabaei's Exposition of Seddighin Demonstration

Mahdi Hajian

The Seddighin demonstration, i.e.a reasoningwhich needs the least premises to prove the necessary being, has always been the desire and goal of Islamic theologians and every one of them hastried to decrease the premises of the demonstration of the necessary being proof. Considering the reality which is the supplier of the origin of reality, as necessary and pre-eternal, Allameh Tabatabaei introduced a demonstration that is so needlessof premises that the self evidence of the necessary existent is concluded from it. The writer of this article investigates the epistemological roots of the origin of realityand explains its different expositions to prove that the origin of reality is just an epistemological essence and cannot end up proving the pre-eternal essence of reality.

Key words:Seddighin demonstration, proving God, origin of reality, pre-eternal essence.

 

 

Views of Refutation in the Criticism of the Theory of Indemonstrability of the Pre-Eternal Necessary Proposition

Ahad Faramarz Gharamaleki

Demonstrability of the proposition "God exists" is an importantissue of the history of philosophical theology in the past decades. The theory of indemonstrability of pre-eternal necessary proposition with a logical approach shows that in the Aristotle logical system, the answer to this question is negative, because of his special morphology of pre-eternal necessary propositions and also his morphologyof provable propositions. Some have criticized this theory, saying: the predicate of such statements is not essential accident, rather its the essence itself. This criticism is based on some views on fallacious refutation.

Key words:demonstrability, indemonstrability, annexed predicate, pre-eternal necessary statement, Aristotelianlogical system.

 

Refutation in Refutation (An answer to the criticism of the theory of indemonstrability of pre-eternal necessary proposition)

Mohammad Hasan Ghadrdan Gharamaleki

Philosophers have come upwith intellectual and philosophical reasons for proving God which has been criticized by the adversaries of philosophy such as Ash'arites, mysticsand experimentalists. An article named "demonstrability of pre-eternal propositions" written by the great intellectuals Seyyed Ali Alam-al-Hoda and Ahad Faramarz Gharamaleki has been published in the weighty 'Hekmat' magazine, second number of the fall and winter of 1382, belonging to the University of Imam Sadegh, peace be upon him, which has criticized the demonstrabilityof God's existence by appealing to "the impossibility of proving because God doesn't have essence" and "the impossibility of priory demonstration". The author of this article defended the theory of demonstrability of God's existence in an article in the weighty Ghabasat magazine, number 35 of spring of 1384 and criticized Hekmat's article through it.

Fortunately one of the writers of the above article, Dr. Ahad Faramarz Gharamaleki, my old and learnedfriend, has answered my criticism which has been published in this same Ghabasat magazine, named "viewson refutation". After studying the photocopy of the handwritten article of my erudite friend, and giving very much thanks for this response, I am analyzing his answers for exchangingthoughts and showing my attentionto this response.

 

41

3/ Islamic Insight and Attitude in Writing History

Seyyed Abolfazl Razavi

3/ History Being Beneficial According to Islamic Historians

Seyyed Hosein Fallah Zadeh

4/ Individualism, Socialism or Both; A comparative study of Professor Motahhari and Professor Mesbah Yazdi

Hosein Soozanchi

5/A Study on the Course of Causality Principle in History According to Sartre and Motahhari

Alireza Muvaffag

6/ History and Politics: The Necessity of Reconsidering the Role of Politics in Future Reformations of Society

Mohammad Rahim Ewazi

6/ Philosophy and History in Moqaddasi’s “Al-Bad’ and History”

Shahla Bakhtiari

7/ Some Guiding Considerations about Philosophy of History of Aboo-Ali Ahmad Moskavaih Razi

Fatemeh Jan Ahmadi

8/ The Role of Fanaticism in History from the Perspective of Ibn Khaldoon

M ahdi Farhani Monfared / Simin Qorban Poor

8/ Analyzing the works of Skinner and an attempt to criticize his methodology of contextual interpretation

Seyyed Khodayar Mortazavi

9/ Ibn Taqtaqi’s Insight and Method of History Writing

Zahra Alizadeh Birjandi

 

 

Islamic Insight and Attitude in Writing History

(A case study of Ibn-Motahhar Maqdesi’s history-writing)

Seyyed Abolfazl Razavi

Although writing historystarted to develop very rapidly at the same time as the completion of Islamic civilization, but it didn’t have a good philosophical development and dynamic. It was best analyzed with a theological approach a method affected by Hadith and Rijal rules.

Nevertheless some exceptional figures such as Ibn-Motahhar Maqdesi worked somehow different from others and had a more specific look at the subject. In his “Al-Bad’ va Tarikh”, Ibn-Motahhar has a kind of epistemological look at subjects and although in the historical parts of the book the epistemological aspect is weakened, but he has a more analytic and critical at the historical events compared to other historians. In this article, first the general attitude toward Islamic history-writing is explained, and then the history-writing attitude of Ibn-Motahhar is investigated.

 

Key words: history, writing history, philosophy of history,historiography.

 

History Being Beneficial According to Islamic Historians

Seyyed Hosein Fallah Zadeh

 

Although history is an ancient knowledge, the question of its efficacy or inefficacy has occupied the minds of many people in past and present. Even though Islamic historians have written very few chapters on this subject in their books or have very few independent books in this field, some of them have discussed this subject in the introduction of their historical writings.

The present article has extracted and analyzed views of about ten outstanding Islamic historians about helpfulness of history. The most important benefits of historical studies, according to these historians, are: having as a sample and gaining experience from deeds of the past people, achieving the habit of patience, an increase in the faculty of wisdom, removal of despair, being confident to the Divine mercy, isolation from the mortal world, becoming hopeful to the immortal world, having a hobby and etc.

Key words: efficacy, Islamic historians.

 

Individualism, Socialism or Both; A comparative study of Professor Motahhari and Professor MesbahYazdi

Hosein Soozanchi

 

The discussion of socialism has been considered as one of the principles of theoretical philosophy of history. This is the question: Is individualism correct or socialism or is it that according to a third theory, both of them are true. This discussion is comparatively new among Muslim thinkers and probably Allamah Tabatabai paid attention to this subject for the first time; then Shahid Motahhari and Professor Mesbah made some inspections on this subject. Shahid Motahhari defends the view of correctness of both (but along with his special analysis of the subject) and Professor Mesbah criticizes some parts of this view and completely denies the socialism. In this article, the purpose is presenting the perspectives of the two thinkers and a judgment between them and considering the emphasis of both sides on attributing their view to Quran, some verses of Quran will be studied as well. The course of discussion is that after a brief explanation of the three views of individualism, socialism and truth of both, the conceptual principlesof the discussion (concept of originality and concept of combination of society) is explained; then explicating the similarities and differences between the two views, an analysis of their philosophical and Quranic reasons and a judgment between the two has been done.

Key words: individualism, socialism, Motahhari, Mesbah Yazdi, originality, combination.

A Study on the Course of Causality Principle in History According to Sartre and Motahhari

Alireza Muvaffag

 

Due to new thoughts, professor Motahhari succeeded to explicate the course of history using causality principle.

In this writing besides the opinion of Motaharri, the viewpoints of some outstanding scholars such as Hegel, Marx, and in a more detailed manner the opinion of a French philosopher and an important representative of the Existentialist school, Sartre, is explained. In addition the following questions are considered in this article: what is the value of studying and investigating history and what are its principles?

Although professor Motahhari has an emphasis on historical traditions and rules and a steady current of principles in the presentation of his thoughts, he gave a positive answer to many requests of people looking for freedom around the world. According to the result of some studies while he was able to logically explicate the flow of the causality principle through history and prove a kind of law-abidingness in the course of history, he was able to emphasize the free will and freedom of human in choosing his destiny, which according to the opinion of many scholars such as Sartre, Marxism was not able to do so. We are probably not exaggerating when we say that the incompleteness of the thought of some like Sartre who were forced to decrease the role of causality in history in order to save human freedom and will, is very well removed in the thoughts of Professor Motahhari.

 

Keywords: causality principle, philosophy of history, Marxism, historical determinism.

 

 

 

History and Politics:

The Necessity of Reconsidering the Role of Politics in Future Reformations of Society

Mohammad Rahim Ewazi

The continuing and pervasive encountering that is happening in the life of human in modern times, has once again seriously raised this question that what is the relation between human role and occurrence escaping of events? In fact is it that what has happened and is happening and all the factors that exist in human life, show the activity of human in forming and creating society reformations or not? Is history the place of murder of human will or is it a field of manifestation of will? It seem that if we regard politics as something beyond adjustment of relationship between human and human societies and consider history as nothing more than a sequence of events, then we need a critical point of view about the relation between history and politics and in other words, the role of human will in the reformations of his society. Such a horizon and viewpoint is just accessible through revelation and the teachings of Divine religions. The view of thinkers such as Machiavelli, Montesquieu, Kant, Marx and Foucault also shows that the relation between history and politics should be reconsidered with the help of (divine) religious explanations.

Key words: history, modern politics, chance, having role, structure.

 

Philosophy and History in Maqdesi’s “Al-Bad’ and History”

Shahla Bakhtiari

The relationship between history and philosophy has been always a problem of both of them. Some have tried to prove that history is a subsidiary of philosophy but this view has serious opponents today. They try to prove the incorrectness of the above effort using scientific principles. Motahhar Ibn Taher Maqdesi is one of those who has mentioned some philosophical matters beside history narrations and has talked about both subjects.

 Besides using wisdom to recognize the correct and incorrect cases, rational justification of issues and events can be very well seen in his works. But still he has not been successful to give an exact definition of the “relation” between philosophy and history and the two are pointed out along with each other and sometimes follow each other with very little links. His attention to philosophical issues and rational justification can be a consequence of the circumstances of his era that Moqaddasi has admitted due to various reasons including personal interest and a sense of responsibility and devout.

Keywords: philosophy of history, history, philosophy, Motahhar Ibn Taher Maqdesi, time exigencies.

 

Some Guiding Considerations about Philosophy of History of Aboo-Ali Ahmad Moskavaih Razi

Fatemeh Jan Ahmadi

The result of Aboo-Ali Ahmad Ibn Mohammad Maskavaih Razi's special look (died at 421 Qamari) at the process of history is presentation of a kind of critical interpretation and explicationof history and explanation of the type of philosophy of history. The new method that he created by combining Iranian, Greek and Islamic historical insights or history writing traditions, shows a conscious and purposeful approach that has been very effective in his course of writing historical events and his critical look at events. His critical insight is an approach that is the extract of his understanding and empiricist intelligence on one hand, and the result of his pragmatistphilosophical and moral insight in explaining historical events on the other hand.

An exact examination of his historical book that is very well named “Experiences of nations and successive determinations” shows that besides presenting a wholistictheoretical system based on how human societies change while he has a different perspective from his predecessors, Aboo-Ali Maskavaih Razi also mentions critical philosophy of history in its best manner.

In this writing, while trying to investigate Maskavaih Razi’s view about history writing and his method, I will try to investigate the first sparks of historical sociology and psychology and in other words, philosophy of history according to his view.

Key words: Aboo-Ali Maskavaih Razi, experiences of nations, philosophy of history.

 

The Role of Fanaticism in History from the Perspective of Ibn Khaldoon

Mahdi Farhani Monfared /Simin Qorban Poor

Ibn Khaldoon is one of the rare historians who were able to extract the interference of wisdom and reasoning in history from its traditional aspect. Creating a relation between history of science and other sciences such as geography, he mentions the effect of region on the life of human and creating history. The theory of ‘Asabiat’ (Fanaticism) in history and its psychic effect on formation of governments is one of the most important conclusions of Ibn Khaldoom. It is very important for history researchers to pay attention to this point in order to investigate the reasons and factors of appearance and downfall of governments that have risen from the body of primitive tribes.

Key words: Ibn Khaldoon, theory of ‘Asabiat’ (Fanaticism). Traditional history.  

 

Analyzing the works of Skinner and an attempt to criticize his methodology of contextual interpretation

Seyyed Khodayar Mortazavi

According to the methodology of contextual interpretation, the opinions and thoughts of any thinker is an answer to the direct circumstances of his time and living area. Therefore it is not correct to just study the books and writings of thinkers (including past and present thinkers) but rather it is necessary to study the social-historical context of events that a certain book is written as a reaction to them and has tried to explicatethem. The basic assumption of this methodology is that any text is not formed independently and unhistorical, but rather it is shaped according to a specific social-historical context and comprehending any text depends on comprehending its context.

Accepting the first part of this theory, Skinner considers the second part to be unsuitable and insufficient and therefore he criticizes the methodology of contextual interpretation and considers it an insufficient methodology.

Key words: Skinner, methodology, contextual interpretation, textual interpretation, social-historical context, text and author.

 

Ibn Taqtaqi’s Insight and Method of History Writing

Zahra Alizadeh Birjandi

The main purpose of this writing is to investigate the insight and method of Ibn Taqtaqi in writing history in his book, ‘Fakhri History’. This methodology shows us one of the systematic models of writing history based on theoretical backgrounds and devoid from any prejudices.

Ibn Taqtaqi is one of the people who intend to give norms for history. His position in the first chapter of his book is a philosophical look. Mentioning some historical reasoning and demonstrations in this chapter and using them while talking about events shows his search for logic in history.

The social and political-cultural circumstances of the time have been effective in formation and writing of ‘Fakhri History’, but it is not considered a sufficient condition, rather, along this factor, his personal tendencies and the creativity of his mind have been important as well. Investigating this issue need an independent research with a psychological-social approach that needs a separate article.

Key words: Ibn Taqtaqi, writing history, Fakhri History, philosophy of history.                             

 

50

3/ The Bases of Religious Knowledge From Religion’s Point of View

 

/Ramezan Ali-Tabar Firoozjani

 

4/ Historicism and Religion

 

Khodakhast Arab-Salehi

 

5/ Religious Knowledge from the Perspective of Cognitive Sciences

 

Hadi Vakili

 

6/ What is Quran’s Esoteric Meaning and How is the Course of Achieving it

 

Mohammad-Ali Reza’i Isfahani

 

7/ Semantic of Quran:  Case study of Al Jumu’ah Surah

 

Mohammadreza Pahlevannejad / Alireza Sezavar

 

8/ Context and Quran’s Interpretation

 

Mohammad Faker Meibodi

 

9/ The New Islamic Wisdom (insider wisdom)

 

Abd-ol-Hosein Khosro-Panah

 

10/ Nabovvat in Molla-Sadra’s Philosophy

 

Seyyed Mohammad-Ali Dibaji

 

 

 

 

 

The Bases of Religious Knowledge From Religion’s Point of View

 

Ramezan Ali-Tabar Firoozja´i[1]

 

 

 

One of the most important discussions mentioned in religious studies is religious knowledge and understanding. A great amount of the questions raised in the field of religious knowledge is due to disregarding the principles and bases of religious knowledge and understanding. On the other hand, accepting some incorrect principles and presuppositions in the process of religious studies and religious beliefs ends up with the same problem. Therefore this article will try to extract and explain the most important principles and bases from the view of religion, and will also explain its result and output in the field of religious knowledge and understanding.

 

Therefore one of the principles and bases of religious knowledge is the principles of religious cognition. It is necessary to become aware and understand the features and characteristics of religion before understanding religion’s teachings and statements and discovering the purpose of God. In fact understanding religion is based on knowing its characteristics. We will treat three important and effective bases here as follows: 1. divinity of the existential root of religion, 2. religion and its propositions have nafs-ol-amr (a reality behind it), 3. guidance of religion.

 

Key expression: understanding, knowledge, religion, religious knowledge, understanding religion, nafs-ol-amr.

 

 

 

 

 

Historicism and Religion

 

Khodakhast Arab-Salehi[2]

 

 

 

This article discusses how the school of historicism has influenced religious discussions in three parts: the origin of religion, receiving and delivering religion and the survival of religion. It also considers the outcomes of having such a perspective for religion and then criticizes some of its aspects especially the aspect of receiving and delivering religion.

 

 

 

Key expressions: historicism, religion, revelation, human.

 

 

 

 

 

Religious Knowledge from the Perspective of Cognitive Sciences

 

Hadi Vakili[3]

 

 

 

Episteme has an important role in cognitive activities including religious knowledge because it clearly affects the degree of human’s beliefs. The main parts of religious knowledge are the beliefs related to the soul, the world, the one God or multiple Gods. Although we mostly pretend that religious beliefs are acquired beliefs and thus we focus on them, but some religious knowledge may have biological or even completely spiritual bases. It seems that the role of the episteme related to religious knowledge is not less central than the role of earthly knowledge. Some experimental evidences show that episteme is rooted in some specific systems of brain. The theories of body related episteme have a great significance in cognitive psychology, social psychology and neurology. Body related episteme has a great role in religious perspectives, religious beliefs and religious deeds. It cannot be claimed that being related to body explains everything about the role of episteme in religious experience, but it has a great effect on explaining this complicated phenomenon.

 

 

 

Key expressions: religious episteme, worldly episteme, body related, specific qualitative systems of brain.

 

 

 

 

 

 What is Quran’s Esoteric Meaning and How is the Course of Achieving it

 

Mohammad-Ali Reza’i Isfahani[4]

 

 

 

One of the questions discussed by scholars of hadith, philosophers and Quranic studies researchers since the age of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) until today is Quran’s esoteric meaning. By a comparative study between Shi’ite and Sunni, this article will mention Quran’s esoteric meaning and its different meanings on the basis of rational, Quranic and traditional reasons. It will also compare the perspectives of the scholars of the two sects, who sometimes excommunicate each other. The article will also evaluate them presenting some reasons and will mention that it is possible and acceptable to have different levels of understanding Quran which are called esoteric meaning. Since it is possible for the non-infallibles to understand Quran’s esoteric meaning (but of course with different levels of understanding), it will present some methods of attaining them. According to this article, Quran’s esoteric meaning is one of the things which makes it eternal.

 

Key expression: esoteric meaning, paraphrase, understanding, Quran, interpretation.

 

 

 

 

 

Semantic of Quran:  Case study of Al Jumu’ah Surah

 

Mohammadreza Pahlevannejad[5] / Alireza Sezavar[6]

 

Semantic net work in Quran has a special structure. Although different schools have presented various critical theories, there is no comprehensive and practical model available. The purpose of the present study is to compare the existing models and provide a more practical and structural one which is based on the principles of semantics. Here , the researcher has taken two approaches to study Quran: word and meaning. Semantic structure including concepts in the meaning network of Quran as well as their complexities and interrelationships were analyzed in a theoretical model. Al Jumu’ah Surah was taken as a sample and its verse were analyzed; then I was compared with other Surahs based on such model.

 

In data analysis ,  a structural approach was employed to examine the conceptual and semantic relations among word. First, the relations of verses in Al Juma’ah Surah were analyzed and compared with pre and post verses. Then, the relationships among the verses in this Surah were analyzed which is revealed that Quranic concepts are in a chain relationship with each other. To understand these concepts, it is required to recognize other concepts in a semantic network.

 

Key expression: semantic network, semantic structure, Quranic words, circular links of words.

 

 

 

 

 

Context and Quran’s Interpretation

 

Mohammad Faker Meibodi[7]

 

 

 

It is very essential to pay attention to context because it has an important role in Quran’s interpretation. It has been mentioned from a long ago and is one of the foundational and infrastructural discussions of Quranic studies, interpretation and interpretive rules. We can even see the roots of this discussion in the narrations of the Infallibles (PBUT), and we can say that it has a high position in their view.

 

The author of this article first defines context and then explains the position of this discussion from the perspective of the interpreters and Quranic studies scholars. He also mentions that the narrations somehow prove the role of context in Quran’s interpretation as well.  He then mentions the different kinds of context and divides it into internal and external context. Then he explains the applications of context and writes that it can help us explore the meaning, accept or deny interpretational narrations, explore the relation between statements, prefer a perspective, prefer a specific reading and differentiate between Meccan and Medinite chapters. In the last part of the article, the author talks of the conditions of formation of a context and the new context-creation. Finally he talks of the relation between context and parenthetical statements.

 

Key expressions: verses, interpretation, correspondence, context, Quran.

 

 

 

 

 

The New Islamic Wisdom (insider wisdom)

 

Abd-ol-Hosein Khosro-Panah[8]

 

 

 

Islamic philosophers have chosen different approaches to define philosophy such as subject-centered, method-centered, goal-centered, question-centered and a combinational approach. The goal-centered definitions are either unpractical and vast or cannot distinguish between philosophical and non-philosophical matters. The method-centered definitions do not exclude non-philosophical matters as well. The subject-centered definitions are practical and determinative but they have other problems. Thus the new Islamic wisdom or the insider wisdom tries to find a new definition and structure for philosophy through human’s incorporated being.

 

 

 

Key expression: definition, Islamic philosophy, the new Islamic wisdom, human’s incorporated being.

 

 

 

 

 

Nabovvat in Molla-Sadra’s Philosophy[9]

 

Seyyed Mohammad-Ali Dibaji[10]

 

 

 

Some events which occur for human are considered supernatural and mysterious. A great number of events such as true dream, mind reading, telepathy, extrasensory perception (the sixth sense), miracles, extra-ordinary happenings and revelations are all common in this characteristic.  The important questions mentioned about these events are: can they be studies and researched scientifically and philosophically? Is their cause known? And finally, what have been the results of studying these events for philosophy and science?

 

This article has tried to answer these three questions. The first philosopher who systematically and philosophically studied these events by his psychology was Ibn-Sina. Then Molla-Sadra added some valuable points to the knowledge of prophecies and had some more researches on the causes of these events. Both philosophers considered the function of human’s soul and its relation with the invisible world as the main root of these events. The difference between the two philosophers is that Molla-Sadra investigated them with a new categorization and discovered some of its new principles. A new science, called prophecies in this article, was resulted from their psychology. Yet among the contemporary cognitive sciences in the past half century, parapsychology has investigated and studied the quality and quantity of these events and has achieved good results. Parapsychology and prophecies have common subjects thus they can lead into another belief in metaphysics and open new horizons for sciences such as ethics, social sciences and religious knowledge.

 

 

 

Key expression: prophecies, psychology, parapsychology, miracles, extra-ordinary happenings, true dreams, , extrasensory perception, the sixth sense, telepathy, mind reading.

 

 

 

[1] Assistant professor of the logic of understanding religion in Pajouheshqahe Farhang va Andisheh Islami (Islamic Culture and Though Research Center).

 

[2] Assistant professor of “Pajouheshqah Farhanq va Andishe” (Culture and Thought Research Center).

 

[3] Assistant professor of “Pajouheshqah Farhanq va Andishe” (Culture and Thought Research Center).

 

[4] Assistant professor of the Quranic sciences of Jami’at-ol-Mostafa Al-alamiah.

 

[5] Assistant professor of  Ferdoosi of Mashhad University

 

[6] Students of linguistic  

 

[7] Assistant professor of ‘Jami’at-ol-Mostafa al-Alamiah’.

 

[8] Assistant professor of the philosophy group of “Pajouheshqah Farhanq va Andisheh Islami”.

 

[9] This article is according to the proposal number 2202022/1/01 and is sponsored by the research assistance of Tehran University (Qom Campus)

 

[10]  Assistant professor of Tehran University.

51

3/ The Philosophy of Justice According to the Political Thought of Iran’s Leader

Mohsen Mohajernia

4/ The Basis of Political Ethics in Islam

Gholam-Reza Behroozlak

5/ Ethics and the Philosophy of Politics

Seyyed Mohammad-Reza Ahmadi Tabataba’i

6/The Possible Forms of Islam’s Philosophy of Politics

Morteza Yousefi-rad

7/ Ontology of the Philosophy of Politics in the Transcendental Wisdom

Seyyed-Kazem Seyyed-Baqeri

8/ Anthropology in the Islam’s Philosophy of Politics

Mas’ood Poorfard

9/ The Definition of Political Jurisprudence and Its Subject

as the First Question in the Philosophy of Political Jurisprudence

Abol-Hasan Hasani

 

The Philosophy of Justice According to the Political Thought of Iran’s Leader

Mohsen Mohajernia[1]

 

Justice has a special position in the political thought of Iran’s leader. It is one of the main bases of political knowledge, and is also the result of an internal virtue; it’s a dream and the permanent goal of all political subjects. It is a way to achieve the final goals and a criterion for correcting wrong attitudes and also a measure for presenting model political attitudes. Justice is a concept with various grades and different dimensions and it covers some other characteristics; for example it is comprehensiveness, inclusive, implicit, timeless, and ultimate, it creates responsibility and obligation, and it somehow appears in all personal and social aspects of life and in all practical and cognitive fields. Also it interferes with many similar concepts such as freedom, security, rights, law and comfort. But the leader of Iran, Ayatollah Khamenei, believes that justice although very important, but it may suffer from internal and external harms and it should be watched carefully.

 

Key expressions:justice, philosophy of justice, political thought, Ayatollah Khamenei.

 

 The Basis of Political Ethics in Islam

Gholam-Reza Behroozlak[2]

Although in the modern ages, the difference between ethicsand politics is highlighted but due to the main return of religion to the world’s politics, a new approach to ethics has been created. According to Islam, ethics and politics are very much related. The relation between ethics and politics can be observed from many perspectives each based on some special bases. This article will investigate the bases of political ethics according to Islam’s political thought. These bases are studied in three main fields: epistemology, ontology and anthropology.

 

Key expressions:ethics, politics, political ethics, the bases of political ethics, Islam’s political thought.

 

Ethics and the Philosophy of Politics

Seyyed Mohammad-Reza Ahmadi Tabataba’i[3]

Ethics and its teachings is one the main basis of the permanenceof social life and a suitable interaction between its members. The amount of obedience of citizens and politicians from ethical teachings and rules, called ‘political resource’ in civil and social literature, has a great effect on the stability of the form of social life in different societies. A great deal of the classical political and philosophical teachings in the East and the West depend on improving the ethical structures of the societies. Scholars and different theoretical schools of the main birthplace of thought and wisdom in the West, the Ancient Greece, paid a special attention to ethical teachings. The great Divine and monotheistic religions of the East realizes the purification of human’s souls and correction of their ethics to achieve felicity in this and the next life as the most important matter. On the other hand governing human’s social system, called ‘politics’, has a deep-rooted relation with regulating society’s ethical system and structure.

Islamic and Greek theosophists categorize ‘ethics and politics’, which are both related to action, as a practical theology and investigate theirrole in the stability of social life. Ethics and politics are theoretically two important fields which complete each other in regulating human’s social relations. Since political acts and decisions are along with judiciousness, gaining benefit and reducing detriments, the relation between ethics and politics is struggled. The history of political ethics shows that this struggle and opposition between the two usually ends up to the benefit of politics and to the detriment of ethical values. This article tries to briefly and comparatively study the above mentioned issues in the field of philosophy of politics and especially the classical philosophy of politics, and exactly study religious and Islamic teachings to understand the relation between ethics and practical politics.

Key expressions:ethics, politics, religion, philosophy of politics.

 

The Possible Forms of Islam’s Philosophy of Politics

Morteza Yousefi-rad[4]

 

Philosophy of politics organizes human’s thoughts and deeds by explaining the nature of life and political phenomenon and presenting a suitable form of life. It also answers human’s main questions of life and creates an ease life for its followers by synchronizing life and the common rules of life accepted in an ideology.

Philosophy of politics is a rational explanation of the political teachings of religion regarding social and political life. It presents a coherent system for life’s concepts and political order in the framework of religious knowledge. It also includes recommended inferences.

The author’s claim is that the revelational teachings of Islam’s initial narrations do have thisability and he has presented three reasons for his claim. The first reason says human’s philosophizing is not restricted to a specific geography and after presenting a rational proof of revelation and justifying it, all revelational teachings concerning the nature  of life and its propose and its main concepts will be evident. The second reason is based on the comprehensiveness of Islam and its inclusion. It says Islam is based on a collection of ‘descriptions of being’ and ‘obligations’ for life and this comprehensiveness of religion gives it the ability to answer human’s main questions. 

The third reason is based on the fact that knowledge and philosophy should have a feeding for their framework and Islam, as mentioned, may be a feeding framework for philosophy of politics.

 

Key expressions: philosophy, philosophy of politics, Islam’s philosophy of politics, religiousteachings, revelations, the comprehensiveness of religion, rational proof.

 

Ontology of the Philosophy of Politics in the Transcendental Wisdom

Seyyed-Kazem Seyyed-Baqeri[5]

 

The present article studies ontology of the philosophy of politics in the transcendental wisdom. After explaining the terms, I have tried to develop thetheoretical bases of Sadra’s ontology and investigate its effect on Sadra’s philosophy of politics. The theoretical bases of Sadra’s ontology are as follows: priority of being, different grades of being, permanent change and activeness, and the reasonable and meaningful system of the universe. Then the effect of these bases on Sadra’s philosophy of politics is studied in the following cases: a reasonable social system, a meaningful social system, activeness of human society, the free will of human society, and the need of a human society to a just law. According to this intellectual system, if the political society moves towards the ‘noble being’ by obeying the ‘best message’ it has a suitable path.

 

Key expressions: political ontology, philosophy of politics, the transcendental wisdom, the priority of being, different grades of being, change in the essence, social system, rationalism, free will, law.

 

Anthropology in the Islam’s Philosophy of Politics

Mas’ood Poorfard[6]

 

In this article the importance of philosophical anthropology is mentioned and is shown that anthropologyis an important matter for the philosophy of politics; if human being was not known, politics would not be known either. Having a philosophical perspective, the important and determinative aspects of human in political fields, which are noted by Islamic philosophers till today, are selected. On this base, the approaches of ancient and modern political philosophers are studied in four main fields: 1- generalizing human’s nature to politics, 2- interpreting human’s equality and inequality in politics, 3- explaining human as a naturally social being, and 4- the role of reason in politics. It is thus shown that the modern political philosophers, unlike the ancient political philosophers, have dealt with a normal and earthly human in politics due to their appellant bases. In addition the effects of the knowledge structure of both eras, the ancient and the modern, are not neglected and are completed by the appellant and humanitarian reverence bases of Muslim political philosophers.

 

Key expression: anthropology, politicalphilosophy, politics, justice, nature, human.

 

The Definition of Political Jurisprudence and Its Subject

as the First Question in the Philosophy of Political Jurisprudence

Abol-Hasan Hasani[7]

 

The literal and terminological meaning of jurisprudence and politics are mentioned in the first part of this article. Since the nature of science is hypostatized, the primitive consensuses for the definition of jurisprudence are examined. The most important consensus in this section is that jurisprudence should be defined for making a religious life and should not be restricted to the law. Then takinga critical look at present definitions, the definition of jurisprudence and political jurisprudence are presented. The necessity of political jurisprudence can be examined from two approaches; first is by generalizing the necessity of devoutness to all of human’s life and second by proving the possibility of ethical evaluation of political norms. The second approach is taken in this article.

 

Key expression:jurisprudence, political jurisprudence, political act, devoutness.

 

 

 

 

 


[1]. Assistant professor of the politics group of ‘Pajouhesh-qah Farhanq va Andishe Islami’.

[2]. Assistant professor of the politics group of ‘Baqer-ol-Oloom University’.

[3]. Assistant professor of the politics group of Imam Sadegh University.

[4]. Staff member of ‘Pajouheshqah Oloom va Farhanq Islami’.

[5]. Staff member of ‘Pajouhesh-qah Farhanq va Andishe Islami’.

[6]. Staff member of ‘Pajouheshqah Farhanq va Andisheh Islami’.

[7]. Researcher of the philosophy group of ‘Farhanq va Andishe Islami’.

61

3 / Religion, the Divine Law and Expediency

Abol-Qasem Alidoost

4 / The Effect of the Factors of Heresy (Bed'ah) and Petrifaction on Secularization of Religion

Seyyed Reza Kolouri

5 / Believing in God as the Prerequisite of Believing any Affirmative Statement, in the Two Aspects of Knowledge and Practice

Hosein Oshaqi

6 / The Essence of Philosophy of Religion

(and its difference with theology and the philosophy of religious episteme)

Ramazan Ali-Tabar Phiroozjai

7 / Philosophy of Philosophy of Religion

Mahdi Abdollahi

8 / The Similarity (tashabih) between Human's Soul and God from the Perspective of Imam Khomeini

Mahdi Ganjvar

Dr. Naser Mo'meni

Fahimah Sadat Mosavian-nejad

9 / Reflection on the Notional Concept of God

Mohammad-Rasool Ahangaran

10 / Mysticism and Political Power

Vali-ollah Ahmadvand

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Religion, the Divine Law and Expediency

Abol-Qasem Alidoost[1]

According to authentic religious texts and right reason, sending prophets and descending celestial books and legislation of law by God should have a purpose. The motivation and result of these three matters is nothing other than providing the felicity and expediency of the addressees and the obliged people. The fact that God's action has a purpose is not in contradiction with the rule of "superordinate does nothing for the sake of subordinate". This article will discuss the relation between expediency and sending the prophets, descending books and legislating laws and will more elaborately discuss the relation between expediency and the Divine law (and consequently the relation between expediency and jurisprudence).

Key expressions: religion, the Divine law, expediency, consideration of the public interest, the first inference, the second inference, the goals of the Divine law.

 

 

 

 

The Effect of the Factors of Heresy (Bed'ah) and Petrifaction on Secularization of Religion

Seyyed Reza Kolouri[2]

One of the debatable and new discussions proposed in Iran is secularization; and the experience of the Islamic republic of Iran and its special outcomes has created a suitable situation and a special interest to mention this subject in scientific conferences. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the role of petrifaction and heresy in secularization. There is no agreed concept for petrifaction and heresy in the debates done on this subject. I have investigated the concept of secularization as well as the two mentioned concepts in this article. Then the dimensions of the two kinds of heretical and petrifactive thoughts are briefly identified and it is proved that heresy is a factor that directly affects the process of secularization; and as the amount of heresy increases, the amount of secularization increases as well. On the other hand although petrifaction is considered a factor against secularization but in long-term, through a special mechanism and with a lower speed and an indirect method, it helps the process of secularization of religion and society.

Key expressions: religion, tradition, petrifaction, heresy, secularization.

 

 

 

 

Believing in God as the Prerequisite of Believing any Affirmative Statement, in the Two Aspects of Knowledge and Practice

Hosein Oshaqi[3]

Believing in God's existence is an essential condition for believing any affirmative statement in the two aspects of knowledge and practice; because believing any affirmative statement is equal with believing the existence of a kind of reality, and believing the existence of any kind of reality depends on the existence of an absolute and general "reality". According to the three following demonstrations, the absolute and general "reality" is identical with 'the existent necessary through itself' or God. Thus in the stage of knowledge, believing any affirmative statement depends on believing in the existence of an absolute "reality" which is God. On the other hand, in any activity, it is necessary for human being to believe many affirmative statements therefore performing any action depends on believing the existence of God.

Key expressions:reality, affirmative statement, the existent necessary through itself, God, Islamic philosophy, existent through itself.

 

 

 

 

The Essence of Philosophy of Religion

(and its difference with theology and the philosophy of religious episteme)

Ramazan Ali-Tabar Phiroozjai[4]

Many sciences have developed and flourished nowadays which have not existed as a scientific field in the near past. Some of these sciences are imported and have arisen from the West. For example philosophy of religion is one of these sciences. The philosophy of religion is a new science which has entered the world of Islam almost without any change and is based on the culture dominant on the West and on the Christian theology. Due to the sickly entrance of this science, the definition of the philosophy of religion presented in the world of Islam is still, after the passage of many years, a transcript of its Western essence. Therefore the common definitions of the philosophy of religion are criticized in this article, especially those of the Iranian philosophers of religion, which concentrate on the aspect of "existence". Subsequently a definition of the philosophy of religion which considers the stage of "definition an obligation" is chosen and presented; and the difference between the philosophy of religion and other homogenous sciences such as theology, the philosophy of religious episteme, and … are explained.

Key expressions:philosophy of religion, religious episteme, the philosophy of religious episteme, theology.

 

 

Philosophy of Philosophy of Religion

Mahdi Abdollahi[5]

Searching for human’s specific perfection, Islamic philosophers has tracked his intellectual aspect dividing to practical and pure intellect. They believe that the result of practical intellect’s perfection and it’s dominance over animal faculties is only to open the way for human’s real perfection which occurs in the pure intellect. After passing material intellect, intellectus in habitu and actualized intellect, human being arrives at acquired intellect stamping the form of the universe on him.

But Mullā sadrā holds that first after the arrival at acquired intellect’s stage the soul identifies with active intellect, then continues his perfection to arrive at “annihilation in God” which is very the knowing that the reality of the soul is pure relation to it’s creating cause. In this stage by knowing of his relational reality, gradient toward God attains intuitive knowledge of God. And because of knowledge of his pure poverty and God’s infinite independence in amount of his existential width it is called “annihilation in God”.

Key expressions: human’s ultimate perfection, Mullā sadrā, annihilation in God, intuitive

 

 

 

The Similarity (tashabih) between Human's Soul and God from the Perspective of Imam Khomeini

Mahdi Ganjvar[6]

Dr. Naser Mo'meni[7]

Fahimah Sadat Mosavian-nejad[8]

One of the important matters for human is to become aware of God's essence, names and attributes and also understand the reality of himself. Not only has a pious and monotheist person the wish to achieve knowledge of the origin and creator of the world, others will not relax unless they become aware of themselves, their creator and their surroundings as well. The similarity between human and God has occupied the minds and words of all scholars more than other matters.

The theory of Imam Khomeini, among the later scholars, about the similarity between human and God is more noticeable and considerable. Explaining the aspects of the 'similarity of soul' from the perspective of Imam Khomeini in this article, the most important conclusions of this similarity will be investigated. This investigation will more clarify the reason why he has a special attention to the 'knowledge of soul' and the similarity between human's soul and God compared with other topics.

Key expressions:soul, God, similarity of soul, abstraction, anthropomorphism and transcendence of God, comprehensiveness, God-like innovation and activity.

 

 

 

 

 

Reflection on the Notional Concept of God

Mohammad-Rasool Ahangaran[9]

It is necessary to exactly study the notional concept of God due to the dereliction occurred in the introduction of this subject. First it should be proved that proving God's existence before investigating the notional concept of God is an obvious mistake; because in this case, first of all, the logical order is not considered and second of all many mistake and confusions may occur. Additionally another subject discussed is the distinction between the concept of God before and after proving His existence and also proving the impossibility of the immediate knowledge of God which is less considered in theology and philosophy of religion writings. In addition to the above discussions, this article may be a new defense for the Anselem existential demonstration as well because it shows that the criticisms posed for this demonstration may be posed only on the basis of one of the two definitions of God presented.

Key expressions: notional concept of God, proving God's existence, absolute being, self-subsistent.

 

 

Mysticism and Political Power

Vali-ollah Ahmadvand[10]

 

The three aspects mentioned by the deniers of the relation between mysticism and political power are as follows: considering mysticism as the result of historical-social circumstances, denying the relation between mysticism and political power, and regarding this relation destructive if it exists. It seems that these perspectives have been involved in the methodological and cognitive struggles of the West instead of being the result of an investigation free from presuppositions; these presuppositions mislead the process of analysis by the incorrect comparison between the original-Islamic matters and the Western reflectional-social experiences. Therefore, in this article, criticizing these perspectives, the author believes that there is an existential relation between political power and mysticism in both social and reflectional aspects. Existential relation means that understanding the reality will create a political duty for the mystic.

Key expressions: mysticism, political power, existential relation.

 


[1]. Professor of jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence in Hawzah Ilmiyah of Qom; and assistant professor of 'Pajouheshqah Farhanq va Andisheh Islami'.

[2] Ph.D. student of Pajouheshqah Hawzah va Daneshgah.

[3]. Assistant professor of 'Pajouheshqah Farhanq va Andisheh Islami'.

[4]. Assistant professor of 'Pajouheshqah Farhanq va Andisheh Islami'.

[5]. Ph.D. student of Baqeral-Oloom University and staff member of Pajouheshqah Farhanq va Andisheh Islam.

[6]. Staff member of 'Oloom Pezeshki University of Isfahan'.

[7]. Assistant professor and staff member of 'Payam Noor University'.

[8]. Researcher and graduate of 'Isfahan University'.

[9]. Assistant professor of Tehran University, Qom campus.

[10]. Researcher

62


 

 

 

An Invesigation of the Dualism of Soul and Body from the Perspective of Descartes and Molla-Sadra

Mahmood Shokri[9]

Yar-ali Korde Phiroozjai[10]

Molla Sadra and Descartes are two contemporary philosophers who emphasize on the fact that soul and body are substances and believe that human being is constituted from both substances – yet one is abstract and the other is materialistic. But the way they distinguish between the soul and the body makes their ideas converse. Descartes believes soul and body are intrinsically different and Molla Sadra believes their difference is not intrinsic – unlike the difference between other beings in the universe - rather they are different in their degrees; he believes that the soul and the body are both a degree of one another. Comparing the two perspectives, the author has named Descartes' view regarding the duality of soul and body 'intrinsic duality' and Molla Sadra's view in this regard 'graded duality'. Finally the author concludes that according to Molla Sadra's view, the duality of the soul and the body as pictured by Descartes is conceptual and hypostatized not real and external.

Key expressions: soul, body, pineal body, the corporeal contingency of soul, movement of substance, unitary combination.

 

 

 

 

 

The Necessity of Morality in the Production of Science with an Emphasis on the Islamic Sources of Ethics

Mohammad-Reza Jabbaran[11]

The purpose of this article is to prove the necessity of morality in the process of producing science based on Islam's ethical principles. The method of this research is to perform a comparative analysis of the theories of philosophers of science and the contemporary scholars of ethics in this subject, especially the Western scholars and Islamic sources. Our contemporary scholars obligate the producers of science and the scientific community to respect ethics; their reason is the principles which are not only accepted in Islamic ethics, rather they are considered the basic principles of the religion of Islam and Islamic ethics. The necessity of preserving rights and science is the most important principle used by the scholars in this regard which has a firm position in Islamic ethics as well. After a comparative analysis of these two principles in this article, a new principle titled 'the necessity of preserving soul' is presented which is specifically the result of an Islamic approach to ethics. The result of this research is: 'the necessity of morality in the production of science is provable and defendable on the basis of Islam's ethical principles'.

Key expressions: ethics, science, production of science, morality, necessity, right, soul.

 


[1].Associate professor of 'Pajouheshqah Farhanq va Andisheh Islami', the group of theology.

[2].Assistant professor of 'Pajouheshqah Farhanq va Andisheh Islami', the group of theology.

[3].Associate professor of 'Ferdowsi Mashhad University'.

[4].M.A. student of Islamic philosophy and theology, 'Ferdowsi Mashhad University'.

[5].Staff member of 'Payam Noor University'.

[6].M.A. of philosophy and theology, Baqeral-Oloom University.

[7]. Assistant professor of the 'epistemology group' of Pajouheshqah farhanq va Andisheh Islami.

[8].researcher

[9].M.A. of Islamic philosophy and theology, 'Baqer-ol-Oloom University'.

[10], Associate professor of 'Baqer-ol-Oloom University'

[11].Assistant professor of 'Pajouheshqah Farhanq va Andisheh Islami', the group of ethics.

63

3 / The Rational and Narrational Bases of Imam's Knowledge of the Unseen (Qaib)

?

4 / The Rational Bases of Practical Mysticism from the Perspective of Allamah Tabataba'i

Mohammad Javad Roodgar

5 / An Investigation and Criticism of the Four Epistemological Bases of John Hick's Theory of Religious Pluralism

The Epistemological Pattern of Kant, Wittgenstein's Theory of 'Seeing as', Schleiermacher's Principle of Religious Experience, the Hermeneutic Base of Gadamer

Seyyed Hasan Mo'allemi

7 / An Investigation of Molla-Sadra's View about the Intuition of Essence and an Acquired Knowledge of Being and the Effect of This Knowledge in the Cognition of God

Hasan Mo'allemi

8 / The Functions of Practical Reason in Shi'ite's Principles of Jurisprudence

Mohammad Arab-Salehi

10 / A Review of the Theory of Religious Innate Disposition in the Semantic?? Approach of Victor Frankel

Khadijeh Hashemi

Jahangir Mas'oodi

11 / The Philosophy of God Sustaining His Servants from the Perspective of Quran

Mahdi Abdollahi-poor

 

 

 

 

 

The Rational and Narrational Bases of Imam's Knowledge of the Unseen (Qaib)

Ahmad Marvi*

Seyed Hasane Mostafavi**

 

 

Some questions about Imam's knowledge of the unseen have been posed nowadays such as: Imam's knowledge of the unseen is a new-born discussion posed through a long process and a historical course some centuries after the life of Imams; otherwise this knowledge has not been posed from the beginning ages of Islam.

This article will investigate the rational and narrational bases of Imam's knowledge of the unseen and will reach to the conclusion that the theory of Imam's knowledge of the unseen is rooted in Quran's verses and narrations. The knowledge of the unseen has been posed in the time of the Prophet (PBUH) and the Imams and they have affirmed this knowledge. Therefore there is no doubt about Imam's knowledge of the unseen among Shi'ite scholars, although they occasionally disagree about the range of this knowledge. Some believe the range of this knowledge is jurisprudence and beliefs and some believe the range is greater than this. This point will be completely clarified in this article.

 

Key expressions: knowledge of the unseen, infallibility, Qaib, revelation, intuition, intuitional science, inspired science, inspiration, Quran.

 

The Rational Bases of Practical Mysticism from the Perspective of Allamah Tabataba'i

Mohammad Javad Roodgar*

Practical mysticism or the mystic journey is the base and foundation of mysticism because theoretical mysticism is in fact the reflection of practical mysticism and is the expression and interpretation of the discoveries of one's journey and intuition.

Practical mysticism – in which various levels and stations are passed through to achieve perfection and become close and united with God – has rational bases, based on Islam's teachings, which are extracted and explained by Allamah Tabataba'i. These bases, elaborated in his book "Al-Velayah", are discussed in this article and are as follows: the possibility of reaching to Malakoot (the Dominion of God), intuitional knowledge of the soul, tendency to saintship and being religious on the base of religion's apparent meaning and hidden meaning.

Key expressions: practical mysticism, reason and rational, knowledge of the soul, Malakoot (the Dominion of God).

 

 

An Investigation and Criticism of the Four Epistemological Bases of John Hick's Theory of Religious Pluralism

The Epistemological Pattern of Kant, Wittgenstein's Theory of 'Seeing as', Schleiermacher's Principle of Religious Experience, the Hermeneutic Base of Gadamer

Seyyed HasanHoseyni*

The theory of religious pluralism is tied with the name of John Hick (1922-2012) in the West in the present century and the twentieth century. John Hick (which I was informed of his death during the correction of this article) has made a great effort to present an epistemological explanation of the theory of religious pluralism in recent decades. The result of this effort is the theory of religious pluralism noted by various Western scholars which is also seriously criticized. I have tried to investigate the main epistemological parameters and bases of the theory of religious pluralism in this article and will mention some of its results and implications. For this reason this view is analyzed into four main parameters and each one is briefly explained. The main purpose of this article is to prove this hypothesis: the epistemological foundation of Hick's theory of religious pluralism is affected by the theories of four scholars, i.e. Kant and Wittgenstein and Schleiermacher and Gadamer. Although his effort to integrate and create coherency between these parameters is praiseworthy, but in fact analyzing this theory will reduce it to four parameters: the epistemological pattern of Kant, Wittgenstein's theory of seeing as, Schleiermacher's principle of religious experience and Gadamer's base of hermeneutics. Hick himself may not be satisfied with this conclusion. It is mentioned in this article that Hick has himself declared his affection of two theories and two philosophers, i.e. Kant and Wittgenstein, but he has no clear declaration about the affection of his theory from the two other scholars, i.e. Schleiermacher and Gadamer. I believe the effect of these two and their theories is not less than the theories of Kant and Wittgenstein. At the end of this article some main problems of this theory and also the supplanted theory are briefly mentioned; although each of these two discussions – i.e. investigation and criticism of Hick's theory of religious pluralism and the supplanted theory named "pluralism in religion" – should be investigated separately. Therefore the main purpose of this article is to present a new approach to the epistemological investigation and analysis of John Hick's theory of religious pluralism in which the theory is evaluated with four other approaches and bases.

Key expressions: religious pluralism, Hick's religious epistemology, religious experience, seeing as.

 

 

 

An Investigation of Molla-Sadra's View about the Intuition of Essence and an Acquired Knowledge of Being and the Effect of This Knowledge in the Cognition of God

Hasan Mo'allemi*

According to Molla Sadra's view and some other scholars, having an acquired knowledge of being is impossible and having an acquired knowledge of the essences is possible and they have presented some demonstrations to prove this point. But according to the correct and stable bases of Molla Sadra's thought, achieving an acquired knowledge of being and also God's being is possible just like achieving an acquired knowledge of essence is possible; also essence may be identified by an immediate knowledge just like being is identified by an immediate knowledge. 

Key expressions:immediate knowledge, acquired knowledge, an immediate knowledge of being, an acquired knowledge of essence.

 

 

The Functions of Practical Reason in Shi'ite's Principles of Jurisprudence

Mohammad Arab-Salehi*

The functions of practical reason are briefly and excursively discussed in the books discussing the principles of jurisprudence. Although many commands of practical reason are used in the principles of jurisprudence, both the major commands – such as the rule of rational badness and goodness - and the minor commands – such as the badness of Tajarri (daring against God), the badness of wasting God's purposes, and the goodness of precaution, but this subject is not separately and elaborately discussed in any one of these books. Some aspects of this subject are discussed in some precedent books; for example the discussion of goodness and badness is discussed in these books: 'Al-Fava'ed Al-Ha'eriyyah' (refer to Vahid Behbahani, 1415 LAH, pp. 363-378), 'Al-Fosoul Al-Qaraviyyah' (refer to Saheb Fosool, 1404 LAH, pp. 316-350), 'Fara'ed Al-Osool' (refer to Sheikh Ansari, pp. 230-245) and 'Hedayah Al-Mostarshedin' (refer to Mohaqqeq Isfahani, pp. 433-442). But in the books of recent scholars this little discussion is also rarely found; it is only Isfahani (Mohaqqeq Isfahani, 1374 SAH, v. 2, p. 322 on) who has mentioned this discussion while he presents the reasons of Insidad (lack of religious sources). Martyr Sadr has also mentioned this discussion in his different books to some extent; and recently one of his pupils, Abu Raqif, has presented an independent discussion regarding the applications of practical reason in the principles of jurisprudence in a two volumed book named 'Al-Osas Al-Aqliah'. It is clear that these discussions should not be discussed in the principles of jurisprudence rather they should be discussed in the philosophy of the principles of jurisprudence; and this science, like the philosophy of other sciences, has not been completely developed in religious fields. Yet some worthy scholars have made great efforts in this regard and have tried to establish these sciences.* After explaining the meaning of expressions of this subject and the meaning of practical reason and clarifying the subject and its range, the functions of practical reason in the principles of jurisprudence will be explained in this article.

Key expressions:practical reason, theoretical reason, function, goodness, badness.

 

 

 

 

 

A Review of the Theory of Religious Innate Disposition in the Semantic?? Approach of Victor Frankel

 

Jahangir Mas'oodi*

Khadijeh Hashemi**

Muslim scholars believe seeking for a God and worshiping God is innate. In other words one of human's demands and tendencies is to pay attention to God and seek for him. They adduce the fact that human with different races and different geographical and cultural situations, have always searched for God and have tended to a religion in history. On the other hand some evidences may be found in the recent views of psychologists – who have always tried to recognize the essence of human and his existence – which approve this point.

I will try to approve the theory of religious innate disposition by explaining one of the psychological theories (semanticism of Victor Frankel) in this article; also investigating its outstanding characteristics in comparison with Muslim's theory regarding innate disposition, I have tried to answer some questions posed regarding this theory. 

Key expressions: innatedisposition, religion, meaning, Victor Frankel, Gog

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Philosophy of God Sustaining His Servants from the Perspective of Quran

Mahdi Abdollahi-poor*

There is no doubt that nutrition is one of the most important needs of human being and the continuation of life without fulfilling this need is not possible. Therefore God – who is aware of everything – has taken the responsibility of sustaining his servants; and in the Holy Quran, God has assured his servants of his nutrition. This assurance has made some to believe they have an obligatory right against God! The invalidity of this view is clear after a little thought because the concepts of necessary and necessity have meaning only with respect with matters which is possible to assume a kind of harm for them and also punishing them is possible; while God's being does not have any fault or weakness. More reflecting on the philosophy of this assurance, we will understand its purpose – like all other acts of God – and has a monotheistic meaning.

Key expressions: sustaining, sustenance, necessary and necessity, the Holy Quran, monotheism, slavery and servitude.

 


* Ph.D. student of Qom University.

** professor of Islamic philosophy in Emam Sadegh University.

* Assistant professor of Pajouheshqah Farhanq va Andisheh Islami.

* Associate professor of philosophy of science, San'ati Sharif University.

* Professor of Hawzah and assistant professor of Baqer Al-Oloom University.

* Staff member, the group of the logic of understanding religion.

* Professor Amoli Larijani has elaborately discussed these discussions in his 'Kharej of Osool' classes from 1378 to 1387 and I have participated in these sessions and the present article is the result of these sessions. Some other professors have researched and presented the philosophy of the principles of jurisprudence in the recent years as well.

* Ph.D. student of Islamic philosophy and theology, Baqer Al-Oloom University.

** Associate professor of Ferdowsi Mash'had University.?

* Ph.D. student of Azad Islami University, Tehran's sciences and researches campus, the group of Quran and narration's sciences, Tehran, Iran.

71

Vol. 19 / No. 71 / Spring 2014

 

 

QABASAT

A Quarterly Journal on

Philosophy of Religion

 

 

Proprietor and Director-In-chief: Ali Akbar Rashad

Editor-In-chief: Mohammad Mohammadrezaei

ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

Board of Editors

Gholamreza Aavani(Professor at Shahid Beheshti University)

Reza Akbarian (Professor at Tarbiat Modares University)

Hamidreza Ayatollahi(Professor at Allameh Tabatabaii University)

Ahmad Beheshti(Professor at University of Tehran)

Reza Davari(Professor at University of Tehran)

Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel(Associate Professor at University of Tehran)

Ali-Akbar Rashad(Associate Professor at Islamic Research Institute for Culture and Thought, IICT)

Hossein Ghaffari(Associate Professor at University of Tehran)

Mahdi Gholshani(Professor at Sharif University of Technology)

Mohammad Mohammadrezaei(Professor at University of Tehran)

ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

Tel: 021- 88743008 & 0251-37603572

Fax: 021- 88764792 & 0251-37600128

P.O. Box: 15875-8784 Tehran & 37185 -179 Qom, Iran

 

 

 

Vol. 19 / No. 71 / Spring 2014

 

QABASAT

A Quarterly Journal on

Philosophy of Religion

 

 

3 / Concomitance of the Judgment of Reason (‘Aql) and Divine Law (Shar’)

Ali Rabbani Golapaygani

4 / A Reflection on the Theory of Creation out of Nothing(Creatio Ex Nihilo)

Mohammad-Hasan Qadrdan Qaramaleki

5 / Comparative Study on the Anthropological Principles of Religious Science and Secular Science

Ramazan Alitabar Firouzjaei

7 / Principles of Revelation-Based Anthropology in the Theory of Progress with a Mystical Approach

Mohammad-Javad Roodgar

8 / The Viewpoint of David Hume and J. L. Mackie on the Problem of Evil Comparing with the Transcendent Theosophy

Zohre Tavaziani

Masoume Ameri

9 / An Investigation on the Descartes' Ontological Argument for Proofing the Existence of God

Touhid Abdi

10 / Religion as Being Ideological

Ali-Reza Shojaei-Zand

 

 

 Concomitance of the Judgment of Reason (‘Aql) and Divine Law (Shar’)

Ali Rabbani Golapaygani[1]

 

Abstract

Reason (‘Aql) and divine law (Shar’) are concomitant; what is desirable for reason clearly and definitely is also desirable for Shar’; what is undesirable for reason clearly and definitely is also undesirable for Shar’; this is also true oppositely, that is the shari’a rules are approved by reason; although reason might be unable to comprehend it’s criterion clearly and definitely. The principle of concomitance plays an important role in inference of shari’a rules and actually it is considered as rational proof of shari’a rules. Concomitance of the judgment of reason (‘Aql) and divine law (Shar’), moreover than it is required for rational proof, is clearly reflected in Quranic verses and shi’a narrations (Hadith). Comparing with Usuli Muslims that accepted the principle of concomitance, Akhbari Muslims did not accept it while they proposed problems and debates which were answered by Usuli eminent scholars.

Keywords: reason, divine law (Shar’), intellectual judgment, shari’a rule, concomitance of the principle, inverse concomitance.

 

A Reflection on the Theory of Creation out of Nothing

(Creatio Ex Nihilo)

Mohammad-Hasan Qadrdan Qaramaleki[2]

 

Abstract

There are three major viewpoints among the theologians on the quality of the beginning of creation.Philosophers and mystics typically refer the theme of the world to the Divine essence. They justified the first creation on the grounds that philosophers represent “the theory of emanation” and mystics represent “the theory of self-manifestation and theophany”. But in the interpretation of creation of the world by God most of theologians hold that He created the world out of nothing. This article analyses the possibility or impossibility of this theory.  Firstly the rational and traditional (Hadith based) proofs of the advocates will be discussed, analyzed and assessed.

Keywords: Creation, creation out of nothing (Creatio Ex Nihilo), emanation, theophany, causality.

 

Comparative Study on the Anthropological Principles of Religious Science and Secular Science

Ramazan Alitabar Firouzjaei[3]

 

Abstract

Science and knowledge have diverse elements and components like principles, subject, problems, method, goal, etc. These elements are involved in the nature of science as well as its identity and features. The role of these elements in being religious or non-religious science is one of the personalizing consequences of these elements. Religious identity or secularity of science are based on these elements; in another word science as being religious or secular is dependent to these elements and each of these elements have specified contribution and role in being religious or secular science. Hence, one of the important and basic elements and components of science is “the principles and foundations of science”. This element, which is one criterion for the science as being secular or religious, has major contribution and leading role in the identity and characteristic of science. The principles and foundations of science can be categorized into the principles in the perspectives of ontology, study of religion, epistemology and anthropology. On anthropology, different problems are proposed like the nature and truth of human, human position in the existence order, the position of human individual and individuals, the position of human reason and knowledge, etc.; these problems has emergence in secular anthropology as humanism and human-centrism, rationalism, scientism, etc. In this article, by criticizing and discussing the anthropological principles of secular science, the anthropological principles of religious science, like human nature in Islamic thought, the logic of interpreting human, it’s divine dignity, inner dignity, God-centrism are argued based on religious anthropology. These principles are influencing in sciences and knowledge, especially humanities, from different aspects like scope and goals, subject and types of the problems, method, theorizations, functions, etc.

Keywords: religious science, secular science, religious anthropology, secular anthropology.

 

Principles of Revelation-Based Anthropology in the Theory of Progress with a Mystical Approach

Mohammad-Javad Roodgar[4]

 

 

Abstract

Human is a free-willed being who has existential realms as worldly, heavenly, invisible and visible; reflecting Divine most beautiful names. Human has a comprehensiveness that can reach to the primary and secondary individuation level and achieve the border of “Qaba Qawsayna Aw Adna”. Such being that has the identity of “divine living” and unlimited identity in sublimation and perfection. Typically, human has the power and capacity of being God’s vicegerent. He seeks for the ultimate perfection in the theory of revelation-based progress with the mystical principles. He finds the transcendent progress in the right knowledge and good deeds in order to obtain his goodly life in all levels. This article proofs and explains the theory of maximum perfection in progress based on revealed principles with the mystical approach; and holds that Islam is the only religion responsible for that. Principles like: comprehensiveness of human in the world of being, human as a ground for Divine self-manifestation, human as a ground for reflecting transcendent God, perpetual creation and intensified substantial evolution of human into infinity, maximum perfection, etc.

Keywords: progress, revelation-based principles, Islamic mysticism, divine living, manifestation ground for God

 

The Viewpoint of David Hume and J. L. Mackie on the Problem of Evil Comparing with the Transcendent Theosophy

 

Zohre Tavaziani[5]

Masoume Ameri[6]

Abstract

The cotemporary atheists hold that the existence of evil in the world is a heavy criticism against religious beliefs. They claim that there is a contradiction between the existence of evil and believing in a God who is omnipotence and absolute good; it is not possible to believe in God and the existence of evil simultaneously. Logical problem of evil in a simple form is as: God is omnipotence. God is absolute good. There is evil. J. L. Mackie says: this collection is irreconcilable. Hence, one must not believe in such God. Although David Hume is a believer in Christianity, he doubts in the rationality of believing in God for the existence of evils; because he separates science and philosophy from religion and faith. In transcendent theosophy it is believed that the evils have non-existential nature, lacking any form of independent existence. Anything that has existential form is reasonable as good and desired. With this attitude, the analysis of some philosophers, like Hume and Mackie, on the problem of evil seems unusual; because they didn’t segregate the aspects and modes and they restricted the different dimensions of the phenomenon that seems to be evil to the characteristic of being evil; while one of the pillars of philosophical analysis is to recognize the modes without interlacing them.  

Keywords: evil, Mulla Sadra, Hume, Mackie

 

An Investigation on the Descartes' Ontological Argument for Proofing the Existence of God

Touhid Abdi[7]

 

Abstract

Ontological argument is one of the important arguments in western philosophical thought for proofing God’s existence. After Anselm, Descartes proceeded with the revival and representation of this argument and tried to find a way to the objective existence of God through the concept of God, based on his philosophical principles like the principality of mathematics and the criterion of clarity and distinctness. He claims that it could be perceive the existence of God with the analysis of image and concept of God. This article deals with the explanation of the Descartes' ontological argument and discusses the criticisms came from Caterus (Johan de Kater), Pierre Gassendi and Immanuel Kant Perusing Descartes' answers. Finally, it led to the secrets of the failure and infertility of this proof, that is, there can never be possible to expect the causes and consequences the objective existence form the subjective existence.

 

Keywords: Descartes, arguments for proofing the existence of God, ontological argument, God’s attribute, Descartes' Idealism

 

Religion as Being Ideological

Ali-Reza Shojaei-Zand[8]

 

There is always some Napoleon in us who designates the other as ideologue.

 (Paul, Ricoeur, 1978:45)

 

Abstract

The name of “Ideology” and acknowledging it is recent, but the notion of Ideology and its alternatives has a long history, perhaps as long as civilization. The roots could be found in human desire for excessing its natural status, more than anything else. Accordingly, this article holds that: first, there is no end for ideology with its general meaning, second, not only it is possible for religion to be ideological but also this is the only possible and ideal form. Discussing the truthfulness of these two claims is due to proofing the inevitability of ideology and indicating the compatibility between religion and ideology. We determined these two hypotheses with the conceptual investigation and contemplation on its logical exigencies and finally we affirmed the interminability of ideology and religion as being ideological.

 

Keywords: religion, ideology, natural status, excessing, conceptualization, organizing.

 


[1] Professor of Theology at “Qom Islamic Seminary”

[2] Associate professor at “Theology Department” of  the “Islamic Research Institute for Culture and Thought” (IICT)

[3] Assistant professor at “Logic of Understanding Religion” department of “Islamic Research Institute for Culture and Thought” (IICT)

[4] Associate professor at “Mysticism Department” of the “Islamic Research Institute for Culture and Thought (IICT)

[5] Associate Professor at “Philosophy and Theology Department” of “Al-Zahra University”

[6] MA. Of “Philosophy and Theology” from “Al-Zahra University”

[7] Assistant professor at Olum Entezami University (Police University)

 

[8] Assistant Professor at “Sociology Department” of “Tarbiat Modares University”

72

Vol. 20 / No. 72 / SUMMER2014

 

 

QABASAT

A Quarterly Journal on

Philosophy of Religion

 

 

Proprietor and Director-In-chief: Ali Akbar Rashad

Editor-In-chief: Mohammad Mohammadrezaei

ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

Board of Editors

Gholamreza Aavani(Professor at Shahid Beheshti University)

Reza Akbarian (Professor at Tarbiat Modares University)

Hamid-reza Ayatollahi(Professor at Allameh Tabatabaii University)

Ahmad Beheshti(Professor at University of Tehran)

Reza Davari(Professor at University of Tehran)

Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel(Associate Professor at University of Tehran)

Ali-Akbar Rashad(Associate Professor at Islamic Research Institute for Culture and Thought, IICT)

Hossein Ghaffari(Associate Professor at University of Tehran)

Mahdi Gholshani(Professor at Sharif University of Technology)

Mohammad Mohammadrezaei(Professor at University of Tehran)

ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

Tel: 021- 88743008 & 0251-37603572

Fax: 021- 88764792 & 0251-37600128

P.O. Box: 15875-8784 Tehran & 37185 -179 Qom, Iran

 

 

 

Vol. 20 / No. 72 / SUMMER2014

 

QABASAT

A Quarterly Journal on

Philosophy of Religion

 

3 / The Criticism on Mohammed Arkoun’s Comparative Regards on the Islamic and Western Intellect

Mohammad Arabsalehi/ Saeid Mottaqifar

 

5 / Meanings and Applications of Intellect in Al-Farabi's "Risalah fi'l-Aql" (“Treatise on the Intellect”)

Tahere Kamalizadeh

 

6 / Ta’til (Agnosticism) in Islamic Mysticism

Mohammad-MahdiGorjian/ Ammar Fauzi

 

7 / The Role of the Theory of 'Real Existent' and 'Intangible Existent' (Haqiqah wa Raqiqah) in Consolidation and Explanation of Religious Beliefs

Dr. Mohammad-Reza Ershadinia

 

9 / Wittgenstein and proximity of human to the threshold of “The Higher” (God)

Mohammad Mohammadrezaei/ Hosein Ramezani

 

10 / Theological Fundamentals and Development Fields

Qasem Tarkhan

 

11 / Investigation an Analysis of “Absence of Evil” Theory from Mulla Sadra’s Opinion

Seyyed Hasan Bathaei / Mohammad-Reza Zamiri

Abdolhamid Fallahnejad / Mohamamd-Javad Talebi-Chari

 

12 / Linking Politics to Divine Law (Sharia) with the Emphasis on the Characteristics of the Leader of Utopia in Plato and Mulla Sadra’s Opinion

Zahra Mohammadi Mohammadieh/ Jahangir Masoudi

 

The Criticism on Mohammed Arkoun’s Comparative Regards on the Islamic and Western Intellect

Mohammad Arabsalehi*

Saeid Mottaqifar**

 

Abstract

Analyzing the causes of downfall of Muslims has always been one of the subjects considered by Islamic thinkers, which its importance is obvious for everyone. In this regard, some Muslim intellectuals consider Islamic intellect as one of the main causes for downfall of Islamic world.  Mohammed Arkoun employed two pathological and comparative methods for the criticism on Islamic intellect. This article is an investigation on his comparative method in Islamic intellect criticism. In this method, he sets up all his efforts to proof the inefficiency of religious intellect through assimilating ecclesiastical intellect and Islamic intellect. Arkoun compared religious intellect with the philosophical, scientific, modern and post-modern intellects; he holds that marginalizing religious intellect in the west by the aforementioned intellects is the cause of the initiation of material developments of the west. Here the question is that: firstly, is it true to assimilate ecclesiastical intellect and Islamic intellect? Secondly, How much credible and valid could be the Akroun’s comparative attitude toward Islamic intellect and aforementioned western intellects? This article analyses and studies the Arkoun’s comparative attitude toward Islamic intellect and the philosophical, scientific, modern and post-modern intellects. The authors hold that disregarding the differences between ecclesiastical intellect and Islamic intellect is the cause that Arkoun made mistake in his attitude to Islamic intellect and western intellect; although receding from the traits of the intellectuality of pure Islam which is clarified by its real interpreters, Ahl al-Bayt (AS) of the holy prophet (SAWA), is one of the main causes of the retardation of Muslims

Keywords: religious intellect, philosophical intellect, scientific intellect, modern intellect, post-modern intellect

 

Meanings and Applications of Intellect in Al-Farabi's "Risalah fi'l-Aql" (“Treatise on the Intellect”)

Tahere Kamalizadeh*

 

 

Abstract

Intellect is one of the fundamental and key problems in philosophy which exists in other sciences and disciplines even common-sense usages with its different meanings and applications. In his precious treatise on the intellect, Al-Farabi deliberates on the several meanings of the word "Aql" (intellect) as well as its different and varied applications. This treatise is considerable as the second important work in the field of Al-Farabi Epistemology. Scholars in this field consider the investigation on the complicated theory of Farabi on Aql as the way to know Farabi’s epistemology. With accuracy, conversance and innovation, Al-Farabi presented different meanings and applications of the word "Aql" (intellect) under six important and applicable titles or definitions:

  1. Explaining the definitions of intellect according to common people  (intellect as shrewdness)
  2. Dialectical meaning according to theologians.
  3. Demonstrative intellect in philosophy
  4. Practical intellect in ethics
  5. Intellect (in the treatise on the soul of Aristotle) as a truth having possessing levels: material, actual and acquired
  6. Considering active intellect as immaterial heavenly intellect that is involved in actualization human intelligences

 Formulating such gradation of human intellect (soul) accomplished by Al-Farabi for the first time.

Keywords: Al-Farabi, Aql (intellect), knowledge, Peripatetic Philosophy

Ta’til (Agnosticism) in Islamic Mysticism

Mohammad-MahdiGorjian*

Ammar Fauzi**

 

Abstract

Ta'til (agnosticism)for mystics has considerable importance as it is present as a mystical subjectin their description of Goddirectlyand strongly; description like: Ghaib Al-Ghuyub (mystery of mysteries), absolute concealed and absolute unknown. It seems that, in the first place, theoreticalmysticism deals withTa'til. Terminologically, Ta'til is the impossibility of knowing God.  Ta'tilis like the two sides of the same coin that one side is negation andnullification of the knowledge and the other side is the proof for theultimate of knowledge.  Thefirst one is identical signification and the second one is implicationalsignification.  Reachingto Ta'til reveals the cognition of the ultimate of knowledge. Hence, in fact Ta'til isthe problem of recognition the border of thetwo concomitant meanings: Negativemeaning (the impossibility of recognition) and affirmative meaning (thepossibility of recognition).  In this research, the author deals with thedifferent aspects of Ta'til with the epistemological approach anddescriptive-analytic method. It clarifies that the number and multiplicity ofrational and illuminative and legal or jurisprudential indications shows that the mystics devoted specialattentions to the problem of Ta'til; hence based on those, themethods and levels of Ta'il will beidentified. Finally, we attempt to organize Ta'til as a theory through extracting a series ofprinciples and rules.

Keywords: knowledge, ignorance, Tanzīh (keeping God pure), negation, affirmation, essence, name, manifestation

The Role of the Theory of 'Real Existent' and 'Intangible Existent' (Haqiqah wa Raqiqah) in Consolidation and Explanation of Religious Beliefs

Dr. Mohammad-Reza Ershadinia*

 

Abstract

Aligning the objectives of philosophy with the divine reveled knowledge is the transcendent ideal of Mulla Sadra in developing transcendent theosophy doctrine. In this regard, the theory of 'Real Existent' and 'Intangible Existent' (Haqiqah wa Raqiqah) has profound and dominant influence. This influential teaching is strongly presenting in the whole supreme processing of Mulla Sadra and the followers of transcendent theosophy. Formulating the worldview and religious beliefs according to this theory, which is one of the main characteristics of Mulla Sadra philosophy, can lead us to the distinct nature of Mulla Sadra philosophy. Mulla Sadra founded his departure point of his philosophy on such theory in order to avoid the failures of the former philosophies. Mulla Sadra's innovations in method and content give him attention to mystical profound subjects and appealing to the Divine revealed resources; hence he could bring about original essences by formulating proof theories as well as to recover the remained gaps left behind by the traditional and philosophical schools. The use of this theory is not localized and limited to a few specific problems and subjects. Learned mystics in theoretical mysticism, firstly, referred to this theory in theology and left the attribution of "Real Existent" and "Intangible Existent" for the researcher theosophers as a legacy. Mulla Sadra and his followers more than ever before and more than anyone else used this theory in theology and pointed its broad scope in solving the problems objectively. In the current logic of transcendent theosophy works, it is referred as the predication of "Real Existent" and "Intangible Existent" for attributing some subjects and predications that are evidently different; as it is useful in solving Divine problems and play a special role in descripting worldview, and explaining beliefs, and connecting unity with diversity, and relating cause with effect, and relating the phenomenon in the world to Divine Creator. Despite the importance and broad domain of this teaching, it is not investigated with all its dimensions independently in order to clarify its limits, borderlines, precisions and effects. Analyzing the it’s influential applications in theology, especially in descripting and consolidation of monotheistic beliefs and doctrinal portions, with referencing to the words of transcendent theosophers can face us with a new attitude toward transcendent theosophy.

Keywords: 'Real Existent' and 'Intangible Existent' (Haqiqah wa Raqiqah), connection between unity and diversity, unity of Divine attributes, unity of Divine actions

 

Wittgenstein and proximity of human to the threshold of “The Higher” (God)

 

Mohammad Mohammadrezaei*

Hosein Ramezani**

Abstract

This article investigates and analyses the Wittgenstein’s epistemic approach and attitude to the divine truth in his two philosophical thinking periods. The fundamental characteristic of Wittgenstein’s epistemic approach is his attention to truth based on linguistic analysis. Despite the different base of his linguistic knowledge in his two periods of thinking and thus the difference in his epistemic explanations, his attitude toward God in each period has the same and common essence. This article tries to elaborate and identify the Wittgenstein’s approach on the linguistic analysis on the Divine truth. This study shows that how the principles of Wittgenstein’s linguistic knowledge can lead him to adopt a fideist and unrealistic position to the Divine truth and rather to the most of metaphysical beliefs. Finally, the Wittgenstein’s epistemic approach and the resulting attitude on the divine truth has been analyzed and criticized.

Keywords:God, The Higher, Divine being, human, Language, fideism, meaning

 

An Investigation on the Descartes' Ontological Argument for Proofing the Existence of God

Qasem Tarkhan*

 

Abstract

Explaining the relation between Theology (Kalam) and the Islamic-Iranian model of development is one of the fundamental issues in the field of the philosophy of model. This issue has derivatives such as the relation between theological beliefs and development fields specially the field of science which this article is to explain it. Elaborating the relation between theological fundamentals with the status quo in the field of science, the favorable status descripted by reviewing the subject, method, goal, scope and propositions of science. Analysis of the subject, method and goals of natural sciences and humanities according to theological teachings can change the status quo and explains the favorable status. The role of theological fundamentals in other fields is another goal that the article pursuits.

 

Keywords: development, Humanities, natural sciences, Theology (Kalam), science, goodly life

 

Investigation an Analysis of “Absence of Evil” Theory from Mulla Sadra’s Opinion

Seyyed Hasan Bathaei*

Mohammad-Reza Zamiri**

Abdolhamid Fallahnejad***

Mohamamd-Javad Talebi-Chari****

 

Abstract

The “good and evil” is one of the important and extended subjects in the field of philosophy, theology and philosophy of religion. “Absence of Evil” is the theory that some of the western philosophers and most of the Muslim philosophers believe it for proofing the principle of Tawhid (monotheism) and avoiding dualism. Mulla Sadra and the followers of transcendent theosophy defined evil as absence  of essence or absence  of essential perfection for proofing the theory of “Absence  of evils”; then they appeal to these three reasons for proofing “Absence  of evils”: the principle of self-evidence, rational argument, the argument resulted from proofing principality of being and imperfect induction as the confirmation. For the investigation and analysis of the definition and the above mentioned arguments, we mentioned in this article that self-evidenced principle of absence  of evils has not justified explanation and rational arguments also is arguing in a circle and circular reasoning. At the end, seemingly it is better for the Muslim philosophers to pay more attention to the fundamentals in order to remove doubts or presenting explanations and new arguments.

 

Keywords:Mulla Sadra, good and evil, absence of evil, principality of being

Linking Politics to Divine Law (Sharia) with the Emphasis on the Characteristics of the Leader of Utopia in Plato and Mulla Sadra’s Opinion

Zahra Mohammadi Mohammadieh*

Jahangir Masoudi**

 

Abstract

Against what is generally believed, Plato and Mulla Sadra- two eminent philosophers in the field of ancient Greek philosophy and Islamic philosophy- does not have the same theory about utopia the characteristics of the leader of utopia, but rather these two philosophers have two theories, one is idealistic and the other is realistic; this is the influential element in the manner of the relationship between politics and law in their philosophical systems. Furthermore, despite the differences in philosophical fundamentals and some attitudes, Plato and Mulla Sadra have close proximity and relationship in their theories. This research is to clarify and study the similarities and differences between the opinions on these two thinkers through investigating the two Idealistic and realistic theories and the quality of the relationship between politics and divine law.

 

Keywords: Governor, politics, Divine law (Sharia), Idealistic approach, realistic approach

 

 


* Assistant professor at the “Logic of Understating Religion Department” of Islamic Research Institute for Culture and Thought (IICT)

** Ph.D. candidate of Islamic philosophy at Baqir al-Olum University

* Associate professor at the philosophy department of the University of Zanjan

* Associate professorat Philosophy department of Baqir al-Olum University

** Assistant professor at The Islamic College, Jakarta, Indonesia

* Assistant professor at Hakim Sabzevari University

* Professor at “Philosophy of Religion Department” of the University of Tehran, Farabi Branch

** Ph.D. Candidate for “Comparative Philosophy” at the University of Qom (responsible author)

* Assistant professor at “Theology (Kalam) Department” of the Islamic Research Institute for Culture and Thought (IICT)

* Assistant professor at Payam-Noor University

** Assistant professor at Payam-Noor University

*** Assistant professor at Payam-Noor University

**** Ph.D. candidate and faculty member at  Payam-Noor University

*Ph.D. Candidate of  Islamic Philosophy and Theology – Transcendent Philosophy, at Theology Faculty of “Ferdowsi University of Mashhad” (responsible author)

** Associate professor at Islamic Philosophy and Theology department of “Ferdowsi University of Mashhad”  

73

Vol. 19 / No. 73 / AUTUMN2014

 

 

QABASAT

A Quarterly Journal on

Philosophy of Religion

 

 

Proprietor and Director-In-chief: Ali Akbar Rashad

Editor-In-chief: Mohammad Mohammadrezaei

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Board of Editors

Gholamreza Aavani(Professor at Shahid Beheshti University)

Reza Akbarian (Professor at Tarbiat Modares University)

Hamid-reza Ayatollahi(Professor at Allameh Tabatabaii University)

Ahmad Beheshti(Professor at University of Tehran)

Reza Davari(Professor at University of Tehran)

Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel(Associate Professor at University of Tehran)

Ali-Akbar Rashad(Associate Professor at Islamic Research Institute for Culture and Thought, IICT)

Hossein Ghaffari(Associate Professor at University of Tehran)

Mahdi Gholshani(Professor at Sharif University of Technology)

Mohammad Mohammadrezaei(Professor at University of Tehran)

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Tel: 021- 88743008 & 025-37603572

Fax: 021- 88764792 & 025-37600128

P.O. Box: 15875-8784 Tehran & 37185 -179 Qom, Iran

 

 

 

Vol. 19 / No. 73 / AUTUMN2014

 

QABASAT

A Quarterly Journal on

Philosophy of Religion

 

3 / Methodological Approach to the Differences of Religious Beliefs and Commandments

Hamid-Reza shakerin

 

4 / The Legacy of the Previous Religions and Theosophers within the Meaning of Monotheism (Tawhid) in Philosophical Thought of Allama Tabatabai

Mohammad-Ali Ardestani

 

5 / Faith from the Viewpoint of Allamah Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i

Mansour Nasiri

 

6 / An investigation on the Monotheism (Tawhidi) Dimensions of Allama Tabatabai EthicalTheory and its Contrast with Current Ethical Theories

Ali Reza Movaffag / Mohammad-Hossein Mahdavi-Nezhad

 

8 / Assessing the Possibility of “Islamic Humanities” on Basis of “Language of Religion”

Mahdi Zakeri / Hamid Khoda Bakhshian

 

10 / Considerations on Khattabi’s Theory about “Effective Miracle” of the Holy Qur’an

Sayyed Muhammad Hasan Javaheri

 

11 / Explanation and Analysis of the Argument of the Infiniteness of God (As the Most Important Argument for the Personal Unity of Existence)

Musa Malayeri / Amir-Hossein Mansouri-Nouri

 

12 / Philosophical Insight and Understanding Religion

Mohammad-Reza Bahari

 

Methodological Approach to the Differences of Religious Beliefs and Commandments

 

Hamid-Reza Shakerin[1]

 

Abstract

Methodology is an important prerequisite of every kind of knowledge. 'Ilm al-Usul al-Fiqh (the methodology of inferring Islamic jurisprudence), is developed continuously as how as the Islamic jurisprudence has been developed in several eras. The logic and method of 'Ilm al-Kalam (Islamic Theology), on the other hand, has not been developed sufficiently so. Thus, as a preface to the subject, this article is to compare the two disciplines (Fiqh and Kalam) to investigate their differences and thereby finding out the different methodological requisites of 'Ilm al-Kalam.

 

Key words:method, methodology, Usul al-Fiqh, 'Ilm al-Kalam

 

 

The Legacy of the Previous Religions and Theosophers within the Meaning of Monotheism (Tawhid) in Philosophical Thought of Allama Tabatabai

Mohammad-Ali Ardestani[2]

 

Abstract

Monotheism (Tawhid) is the main problem in the whole universe, that Prophets and the successors (Awsiya) – peace be upon them – have invited the people to it, at first, and then, scholars, mystics and Theosophers pursued it. According to Allama Tabatabai,  the Oneness (Wahidiyyah) position is the legacy of the previous religions and remarks of Theosophers within the meaning of monotheism (Tawhid), and, additionally, the truth of existence is “necessary existent by itself (Wajib al-Wujud bi al-Zat)”,“from all directions” and “unique to the true and original unity”, and it is the “collection of all attributes of perfection”, and it is free from all “attributes of defection and non-existence”.

This article proceeded to scientific and philosophical explanation and analysis of Allama Tabatabai’s viewpoint about the legacyof the previous religions and remarks of Theosophers within The meaning of Monotheism (Tawhid) based on his various works.

 

Keywords:  The truth of existence, Monotheism (Tawhid), Oneness (Wahidiyyah), Original Unity, Necessity, Attributes, Unity (Ahadiyyah).

 

 

Faith from the Viewpoint of Allamah Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i

Mansour Nasiri[3]

Abstract

Surveying Tabataba’i’s view about the nature of faith is the main concern of this paper. After the presentation of views among Islamic scholars about the nature of faith, the place of Tabatabai's view among these approaches, have been shown. Although Tabataba’i’s phrases in determining the nature of faith are different and sometimes seemingly incompatible, it has been shown that these phrases are about two positions. Some of them are about absolute faith, namely faith in itself. In this perspective, the nature of faith is what Tabataba'i calls it "Aqd al-Qalb". And stresses that faith is a matter of heart and not acknowledge by language or practice by body, or the like. But some of the phrases are about faith as it required by religion. In this perspective, faith must be coupled with action, otherwise it will be useless. Thus, there is no contradictory or inconsistency in his phrases about faith. To confirm and strengthen this interpretation of his viewpoint about faith, three other major issues we have to follow: First, the intensity and weakness in faith, second, the relationship between faith and other categories, and third, the relationship between faith and reason. Throughout the essay it have been shown how these issues discussions, confirm our interpretation.

 

Keywords: faith, the relation between faith and reason, the nature of faith, the relation between faith and free will, the relation between faith and atheism, the relation between faith and Islam, the levels of faith, Allamah Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i

 

An investigation on the Monotheism (Tawhidi) Dimensions of Allama Tabatabai EthicalTheory and its Contrast with Current Ethical Theories

Ali Reza Movaffagh[4]

Mohammad-Hossein Mahdavi-Nezhad[5]

Mohammad-Reza Zamiri[6]

 

Abstract

There is a serious difference between Allama Tabatabai ethical theory, according to monotheism (Tawhid), and western current theories. In his theory, God (Allah) is as an ultimate goal of ethical behavior. It is the ultimate goal which attracts the ethical conduct of anyone in terms of the absoluteness of perfection and beauty.  This attitude is different from those theories that, truth element has not generally main role in their essentials; such as Aristotle's virtue ethics [theory] and Kant’s deontological ethics [theory]. Additionally,God exists in human congenitally and innately and that is the main feature of the human tendency toward morality in above theory. Surely, such a view is fundamentally different from utilitarianism [theory] of the people like Bentham, in which the main feature of the human tendency toward morality is his material desires to higher profits. Third, the subject of detachment of human form Allah, even in little scale, has been supposed as a necessity for a moral behavior in Allama theory that it is clearly opposed to ethical egoism. All these [three] points can be supposed as the dimensions of monotheism (Tawhid) principle which can be seen in all over of Allama theory.

 

Keyword:Ethics, Monotheism (Tawhid), Nature, Beauty.

 

 

Assessing the Possibility of “Islamic Humanities” on Basis of “Language of Religion”

Mahdi Zakeri[7]

Hamid Khoda Bakhshian[8]

 

Abstract

“Islamic Humanities” as a branch of “Religious Science” has two foundations; foundations of “the Knowledge of the Nature of Science” and foundations of “Knowledge of Religion”. Discussion about foundations of “the Knowledge of the Nature of Science” is more often by type of issues in the “Philosophy of Science”, and topics that related to foundations of “Knowledge of Religion” has worth to plan among the discussion of “Philosophy of Religion”. Foundations of “Knowledge of Religion” related to “Religious Science” are group of principles and features that make it possible for religion to enter in science realm, by having those qualifications. The language of Islam is among these principles. This language gave this ability to Islam in order to play in “Humanities”, because of having these features: being meaningful and narrating the reality; but, there are some views in current topics that block the way to entrance religion to this realm, by damaging these features in “Language of Religion”. Positivists by planning challenge of being meaningful, Wittgenstein by “Language Games” idea, and Functionalism by following functionalist theory of meaning are mastermind of opposing views. In this writing, after explaining the realization of possibility of “Islamic Humanities” on basis of linguistic features of Islam, we will engage in opposing views and each of their difficulties[9].

 

 Keywords: Religious Science, Islamic Humanities, Language of Religion, Religious Language, Being meaningful, Cognitive Language, Language Games, Symbolic Language, Functionalism.

 

 

Considerations on Khattabi’s Theory about “Effective Miracle” of the Holy Qur’an

Sayyed Muhammad Hasan Javaheri[10]

 

Abstract

One of the most important theories about Qur’an miracle is “Effective Miracle” that was propounded, first of all, by khattabi - of Sunni great author of “Bayan I’jaz al-Qur’an” and commentator of “Sahih al- Bukhari” and “Sunan Abu Dawud” withavailable resources, and many scholars follow him. According to this theory, Qur’anic attractions have beyond the nature of human and its own special signs, and also, it is different from known attractions in material world. Khattabi has left its origin and process ambiguously by referring to some documentations and signs of “Effective Miracle”. In this article, we try to consider and analyze his remarks, and present it, by proper refinement,

 

KeywordsEffective Miracle, Sensual Miracle, Conscience Miracle, Glory of Qur’an, Rhetoric Miracle, Inner Harmony.

 

 

 

Explanation and Analysis of the Argument of the Infiniteness of God (As the Most Important Argument for the Personal Unity of Existence)

Musa Malayeri[11]

Amir-Hossein Mansouri-Nouri[12]

 

Abstract

To explain the relationship between God and everything other than God, four major theories has been formed among intellectuals, that one of them is “Personal Unity of Existence”. This theory has been entered into the realm of philosophy by Mulla Sadra and then, several arguments have been adduced to prove the theory of “Personal Unity of Existence”; that one of them is based on infinite existence of transcendent God. In this article, the argument has been reflected and each of its premises considered separately. We have tried to plan and analyze all critics on the premises, and then, logical strengths and weaknesses points of argument have been discussed in order to prove the claim. At the end, two “gradation” (Tashkīk) and “existential connection” (Wujud Rabit) theories have been criticized and considered as the opponent theories for personal unity.

 

Keywords:Personal Unity, Infiniteness, Gradation (Tashkīk), Dependence

 

Philosophical Insight and Understanding Religion

Mohammad-Reza Bahari[13]

 

Abstract

This research pursues the analysis and study on the role of the philosophical insight in understanding religion as being favorable or harmful. Therefore, at first we will proceed with explaining and analyzing of approaches, and then will criticize the opinions and attitudes toward the subject. Determining the kind of relationship between religious knowledge with the fact of religion is the important point in clarifying the problem. By clarifying this relationship, the role of the philosophical thought will be clarified. There are four approaches about this issue; first approach, regarding Ta’wil (esoteric interpretation), believes that there is no correlation between the truth of religion and religious knowledge; Therefore, it makes dominant the insight which is in accordance with the contemporary age, on the role of the philosophical thought in understanding religion. The second approach, regarding the interpretative role for philosophical insight, accepts the correlation between the truth of religion and religious knowledge, and adaptive of philosophical insight with religious knowledge. According to the third approach, religious knowledge come from the truth of religion, and it is in opposite of human insights, like the philosophical insight. Therefore, this approach not only believes in the role for philosophical insight in understanding religion, but also assigns it as an impediment to understanding religion. In fourth approach, emphasizing on the authority of common sense arising from common insight, knowledge of religion is the same as religion realities; and counts the interference of philosophical thought in it, is  “Bid'ah” (any innovations in religious matters) and unlawful. The selected approach, by emphasizing on understanding religion on influencing of religious thought, believes that religious knowledge  is correspond with the truth of religion, and  also at the time of understanding religious knowledge from religion resources, effective elements in this understanding are efficacious. As a result, if influence of philosophical insight, in summary, is in the direction of religious thought, religious insight can be as an effective element, without the interference of principles, in understanding the truth of religion, Otherwise, it Stipulates on the philosophical insight precision in understanding the truth of religion.

 

Keywords: Religion, Understanding Religion, Philosophical insight, common insight, Religious insight, Religious knowledge

 

 


[1]Assistant Professor at "Logic of Understanding Religion Dep." of "Islamic Research Institue for Culture and Thought" (IICT)

[2] Assistant Professor at "Philosophy Dep." of "Islamic Research Institue for Culture and Thought" (IICT)

[3]Assistant Professor at "Philosophy of Religion Dep."  of University of Tehran, Farabi Pardis

[4].PH.D Candidate for "teaching Islamic Knowledge" and Faculty Member at Payam Noor University

[5]. Assistant Professor at "Ethics Dep." of Payam Noor University

[6]. Assistant Professor at Payam Noor University

[7] . Assistant Professor at "Philosophy Dep." of the University of Tehran , Farabi Branch

[8] . PH.D Candidate of “Teaching Islamic Knowledge” at University of Tehran, Farabi Branch

 

[10] Assistant professor at “Hadith and Quranic Studies Dep.” of “Islamic Research Institute for Culture and Thought”

[11] Associate Professor at "Philosophy Dep." of Islamic Azad University, Tehran Markaz Branch,

[12] M.A of Theology and doctrine  from Olum Hadith University

[13] Assistant Professor at “Teaching Islamic Knowledge” at University of Tehran

 

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