The philosophy of Imamat- part 2

Dr. Seyed Yahya Yasrebi

Part one

The philosophy of prophecy


Imamat is not a complete independent issue, but rather it hinges upon the faith and belief in God’s existence, prophets divine mission and affirmation of other-worldly life (eschatological life). Imamat would be a serious talk if people accept prophecy, do not hold human’s life restricted to the worldly life, and did accept the existence of happiness and misery after worldly life. On the contrary, if a person or group of people do not believe in God, surely prophethood would be meaningless for them. 

In “Shefa and Nejat” (healing and rescue), Avicenna discusses prophecy after proving God and Resurrection (return of the body; Ma’ad). Its reason is clear, if the other-worldly life does not exist, humans sort of can also manage their worldly life like animals. Although human’s social life is more complex and needs rules and diplomacy, but humans are also very different than animals in their ability to think, therefore they can solve their complex social life problems.

Hence, humans need for prophecy chiefly is for the sake of other- worldly bliss which is in line with worldly life and also that worldly interests and entertainments do not prevent them from involving in otherworldly eternal bliss essentials. However, Avicenna in his reasoning bases the necessity for prophet hood just on worldly social life.

In my opinion, his reasoning i.e. using worldly life as the basic for discussion is preferable from two sides;

On the one hand, we don’t make the proof of prophethood dependent on more preliminaries and on the other hand, concentration to the worldly life would be sufficient.

Therefore, we also put this worldly life at the core of exoteric aspect of Imamat discussion. Although I argue this point when human’s life undergone important changes because of appearance of western new thought and civilization, but I think these great and unimaginable changes not only did not harm Avicenna’s way of reasoning but also helped it.

Chapter one

Rationality of Religious System

As I mentioned before, the discussion of Imamat stands in prophethood. We also discuss this issue precisely on the basis of philosophical fundamentals of Farabi (339 A.H) and Avicenna (428 A.H). Different from the past, Nowadays we can hold discussion and reach conclusion clearer and stronger (than before), based on the change in Knowledge and thought of humans. First of all we quote Avicenna’s reasoning.[1]

1. Humans alone are not able to provide themselves all the needs of a relatively comfortable life.

2. Consequently they submit to social life in order to live better through cooperation and distribution of labor.

 3. People’s greed forces them to profit from others and avoid serving others as much as possible.

4. As a result, the social life has become the field for oppression and violation of people’s rights. A thing which was expected to be as interest and peace is becoming the cause of torture and pain for most of the people.

    5. For this sake, the society needs the law to set people’s relations.

6. This law should not be under human’s hand. Fore, every human being or rank (group) only see their benefit equal to justice and declare their loss as tyranny.

7. So the law and legislation should exist out of human’s natural domain.

8. Its not possible to say that God who does not ignore trivial and petty things like growing hair in the place of eyebrows and creating arch of the foot to improve people’s life, has kept people back from this important and effective factor in humans life.

Among Avicenna’s octo-sections, numbers 1 and 2 are now more accepted and clearer than before, Since life has became more complicated in new age, and convenient facilities which are produced and managed by human beings has been increased; from automobile, cell phone, hygienic and therapeutic tools, information facilities to food and habitation. It is clearly evident that humans alone can’t provide any of the necessities of life these days.

Avicenna’s view in these 2 sections is exactly the same as Farabi.[2] These two thinkers believe that civil life is grounded on/equal to human’s rational choice based upon their needs.

Besides their earthly life requirements, such needs embrace human’s other-worldly necessities. This point, i.e., focus our attention upon other-worldly life necessities, has been expressed explicitly and obviously in Farabi’s speech. In addition to earthly needs, Farabi is also accentuating spiritual perfections, virtue, and human final and other-worldly bliss everywhere.

About section 3, it is worth to say that currently it’s more obvious and different from the past. There is no doubt that cruel exploitation relationships and maltreatments of humans against humans are existent worldwide and nationwide.

 About the section 4, although it does not exist as before (Slavery, lord and farmer relations), but anyhow it could be found in another different forms. Even now in the third world nations, a large number of people live under oppression of their ruling government at one end, and colonialist powers and imperialism at the other end, and their rights are disregarded by the passion and desires of some of their own kind.

In developed countries, authorities associates on one hand and capitalists on the other hand exploit the majority of people. Liberal-Democrat regimes are guided by agencies affiliated to great international capitalists, and through a mysterious interaction and coordination ,authority and capital effect  and bring the majority of people in economy, policy, and even culture and education under their control.

The world today, in modern civilization of west, despite Avicenna’s age has tried to deprive heavenly and celestial forces of their right to thought and legislation, appointing them to humans through accepting and taking section 5 for granted.

In western humanism, human beings had replaced God and instead of religion, the nature had become the pivot of rights and duties.

The divine mandate and decree is no longer considered as the origin and protector of current rules and regulations at these days and age, but humans’ social agreement and contract take its place. Therefore, west’s fresh civilization rejects Avicenna’s reasoning from section 6 and naturally flouts number 7. If these two sections lose their position and validity, then section 8 is not any longer meaningful.

Consequently, section 6 would be at the core of prophecy proof.

So the main question is:

“Can humans manage their life with contractual/conventinal rules?”

As we mentioned previously, the newly western thought and culture positively replies this question. This response could be based on two principles:

First, faith is a personal/private issue, related to human’s emotions and nothing else. Hence we should not expect religion to manage social life. Religion is not able to do this particularly in ongoing circumstances of human’s life.

Furthermore, religion is not an objective and rationally demonstrable (provable) issue, and as a result the religion itself is in dispute, so how it could be possible to perceive religion as the base for social management.

These two rudiments were justifiable from different dimensions for western thinkers. Because;

Firstly, Christianity was the just ruling religion in their society and it had not any rational principle or comprehensive branches/sub-principles corresponding to human’s nature[3].

 Secondly, church’s authoritarianism and sovereignty background was encouraging people to disassociate church and the state and (control) manage their society mostly based on fundamentals of reflection/thought.

But it should be noticed (that) not only Christianity is not the only religion in the world but also as a matter of fact it is not a real one.  It is natural that we cannot blindly take the same exact position on Islam as western thinkers facing/towards Christianity. However a number of pretending intellectuals try to even out (assimilate) Islam with Christianity and issue the same decree about both of them just for political reasons / causes.

Islam, esp., in Shia viewpoint is a religion based on rational principles (concepts), emphasis on reflection and contemplation, sub-principles compatible with humanity nature, with a perspective on nobility and reverence of human beings completely/ entirely different from Christianity[4], with totality which has always been claimed to be responsible for social management and counting irreligious governments to be usurper and illicit.

However, some Shiites think that the realm of religion and prophets mission does not include sovereignty over society and the people themselves should decide for their nation’s government. For instance, Dr Haeri[5] holds that politics is neither obtained from analysis of prophet hood and Imamat nature, nor deduced form their intrinsic prerequisites / preconditions. They and some of the westernized Sunnis are of like mind, believe that if the religion and government had merged at a period of time including prophet’s life span, this merger was accidental[6] or to the maximum generated because of the specific need to disseminate Islam and solidify its fundamentals[7]. For any just researcher, particularly with regard to Shia outlook, this stand agrees neither with textual denotation/implication nor with scholar’s position and perspective.

Shia scholars do not legalize/legitimize whether rulers in Imams (infallible) era or governors in period of occultation and they were always thinking over holding a legalized government.

But appropriate conditions to ruminate/cogitate about model and contents of this government have not been happened seriously until now/yet. That’s precisely why past philosophers and thinkers didn’t care about politics seriously.

Besides the lack of appropriate social conditions, this indifference has another reason which proves our claim, i.e., almost the majority of Sunni Muslims were cleaving to religiosity (religiousness) of their governments and caliphate, from Rashedin caliphs (the first four caliphs in Sunnis words) to Omayyad’s, Abbasside’s and Ottomans sovereignties.

 And, also textual implications are clear. In Qur’anic verses, it has been stipulated and reiterated repeatedly that the main objectives of prophetic mission are; Gods monopoly on divine mandates[8], obligation to obey God and his prophet[9], priority of prophet over people than themselves, absolute obedience of God and prophets decree[10], necessity to ask permission from prophet[11], installation of justice and social order based on heavenly regulations and rules[12].

Besides these, if anyone under the title of prophet or any other title claims to provide people with felicity/bliss, their first purpose beyond any doubt is to take the helms of the state, so they could become successful easier and sooner.

All service claimants have been used this method in days of yore. Even now, all of spiritual leaders and parties believe that the only way to execute plans is assuming the reins of power. So, in democratic states, the base for changing and Transition of power is that every winner party should take the reins of power to fulfill its plans. Now, why prophets and Imams and religious leaders didn’t want or don’t want to use this tool?

Anyway, separation of church and the state in west is another case which returns to the west’s newly cogitative basics. As we mentioned before, those basics have never seriously been under consideration of our people and even our intellectuals. If anyone doubts this statement, they should show any writing in last century which Quotes Hume and Kant perspective or an outlook similar to them.

Even, the Farsi-printed book of the late Allameh, “Osule Falsafeh va Raveshe Realism”, which has been publishing 50 year ago and is in the hand of intellectuals, has not yet been faced with any criticism and objection even perfunctorily and carelessly.

And so, those who do not accept human’s contractual law’s efficiency in providing their happiness/bliss possibly discuss this issue from two directions;

1. Concerning human’s worldly/earthly bliss provision:

Justice-related affairs in developed Countries like England, France, Germany, US, Canada and Japan have been facing problems yet.

Contrasting with middle-aged conditions, although liberal and Democratic systems are like heaven against hell or light in the face of darkness, but they themselves come up against hundreds of problems. The new school, culture and civilization were started by those who sought to free humans mind and reason in the restricted and frozen atmosphere of middle ages.

But now in the open atmosphere of civil community, humans thought and reason are considered as toys/playthings controlled by western new giant and little Satans of the corrupted and cruel capitalist system which insinuates them by thousand colorful tricks. Human’s mind is buried under hundred kinds of debris. The pressure of media instigated by capitalists and politicians plot is one of them. As an example, I mention one of the irrational works of west in 20th century which has been continued yet;

 After years of war, western intellectuals had become able to stabilize humans as the basic and axis of rights and values, prefer it to irrational entities including religious contexts. The abolition of slavery, despite its religious confirmation is a case in point.

But the political power of these western communities who pretend to observe human rights and claim to protect it, if it necessitates trample on/disregard it based on their economical and political interests and powerfully act on its contrary.

Establishing Zionist regime and allocation of (the land of) Palestine to them who were brought to these land from every angle of the world based upon the disturbed/chaotic circumstances of the old Testament and making its main residents wandering about in mountains and deserts by force and scheme and live in encampments (under canvas[13]) is a live and stable testimony to this issue. Then, they prosecute and persecute these life-losers penalized for their criticism and shed their bloods simply. On the one hand by resorting to force directly or through their puppet rulers and on the other hand through media rabble-rousing and tumult-mongering, they don’t allow anyone to think and reflect or at least wonder;

 “Why Palestinian men and women have no right to live in their land while Russian, American, Iranian, And British and the other Jews have this right?”

Here American and British authorities follow the Old Testament circumstances as if they didn’t hear the human rights story.

This problem is one of the hundreds of new western states maladies. But the problem of capitalism is more important than that of authority, because political power in most countries obey capitalism. Indeed, it was not anticipated that in western liberal society, the new stratum of capitalists will appear through economic thrive, which flourishes gigantically, not only loots the products/handiworks of the majority of people in developed countries but also prevails over most nations in the world via instrumentation of their powerful governments with the aid of science and technology, moreover, violate/tramples upon their properties as well as their assets and liabilities.

Appearance of social gap in the body of western democratic communities and also plundering/looting eastern nation’s assets, thought, culture, peace and security were not hidden from 19th century’s thinker’s sight. The western society had restricted the power of church and state with the aid of science and tact (thought), but capitalism became more active. This time capital straightened up not in the shape of aristocrats, huge landlords, imperial court personages, and church, but in the shape of parvenu and un-identical plutocrats who attain their identity because of money.

Capital formed the majority up into tools/devices for itself, whether in manufacturing and business centers or through the ballot boxes which seal the fate of power.

Socialism, suggested by western intellectuals, levelled at struggling against new class conflicts and oppressions was finally defeated with all of its hopes and glad tidings[14]. Marx (1883) and Angles designed socialist system as a scientific method for competing with /against new capitalism in the second half of 19th century. By manifestation of new conditions in World War I, the adherents/ apostles of this school wielded authority/power and then become the second pole of world power.

But this powerful pole along with all of its satellites, allies, and supporters from different countries and evident and hidden sects and parties of leftist intellectuals faced defeat, for following reasons:

1. Executive’s infraction of the scientific theory proposed by its designers/planners:

Viz., they had not paid attention to the evolutionary and dialectical process of nations towards emergence of socialism, instead they tried to impose this system profiting from various nonscientific and old testament methods including rabble-rousing, stimulating complexes and emotions of deprived people, ethnic minorities and destitute (poor) and backward nations, resort to violence, regicide, coup d’état, murder, chanting anti-oppression and anti-capitalism slogans.

2. Incompetence in proper management;

Resulted from nonscientific methods and not being the fruit of community changes, socialism was not able to create/establish a simple, unadorned, fair and free life based on ideal agreement the same as its originators cause, by which everyone can work to the extent of their ability and consume/use to the extent that is needed.

Naturally because of their defeat in creating ideal harmony they tied their survival up with non-democratic and nonscientific strategies, resorted to violence benefiting from the most terrifying information and military bureaus and institutions and the most boisterous publicity waves, gave the ground to opportunists and charlatans through dispossessing of liberty and stepped on honesty, piety and even knowledge and thought.

3. Indifference towards cultural and ethical supports:

Through disturbing political and economical systems, communist and socialist revolutions didn’t think about any cultural, religious and ethical support, but trampled on culture, belief and value in the extreme. So, ideal and emotional mottos faded gradually, production crippled/harmed, management became pro forma and aimless, current laws and regulations segregated from people’s thoughts and emotions.

4. West’s incessant pressure and struggle:

Western states considered communism as a dangerous entity from two dimensions:

On one side, socialism was regarded as a threat to capitalists, the moneyed class that resided the ruler’s power and only thought about their interests and capital. On the other side, regarding threats posed to western imperialism. West was losing a part of its interests and revenue sources as a result of the victory of every communist and socialist movement.

Hence, it was trying to fight, destruct and defeat the world’s socialist pole in a most serious stand and along with every weapon and firearm; From bloody coup d’états to prolonged bloodily battles and from siege and economic embargo to criticisms about human rights.

Thus, from those golden promises and dreamy mottoes besides all bloodsheds and tolerated pains, the destitute that were turned to this direction with thousands of hopes, not only achieved nothing but also their thought, culture, religion and moral harmed. And finally this fanciful palace broke down before the eyes of those who become ensnared in a socialist system inside and those lovers who were searching their lost paradise in this system.

2. in respect of providing human’s other-worldly bliss

Some of religious intellectuals believed that contrary to the church’s ruling epoch, faith and purity of people will increase by emergence of open atmosphere and peace. But nowadays, the civilized world (practically) witnesses the fall of religious values and beliefs/ doctrines in practice.

Civilized societies do not consider religion as a serious matter and hold it as a legend or myth which is bearable and acceptable just for its attractiveness for some people regardless of its legitimacy or falsity reasons.

On the other side, western authorities’ have some conscious devilments toward non-Christian religions and faiths, that we mention some of them;

  1. They demonstrate an improper and incorrect view of religions as a result of indifference towards Christianity. Consequently, the other religions that probably have not the flaws and weaknesses of Christianity practically will entangle the same destiny as Christianity (fate Christianity ending).
  2. A kind of invitation to egalitarianism (equality among all of the world’s religions) mainly based upon pluralism or negligence and tolerance. These pluralism and tolerance have two opposite usages;

Firstly, its application regarding men of bias and dogmatism aimed at getting opportunity for new-thinking and innovation; this application is logically true.

Secondly, its instrumental utilization by politicians and traffickers intended to show doctrinal and ethical affairs insignificant, evening out right and wrong, rationality and irrationality, truth/reality and superstition (out)!

Another form of invitation to egalitarianism has recently been publicized which is entitled as “traditionalism”. The base of this invitation is “substantial equality” of all traditional beliefs and their rightfulness. Now an example of declarations of one of this invitation publicist;

In “”Marefat va Amre qodsi” (knowledge and divine command) Dr Nasr writes/says;

“Of course, not everyone can think or have intellectual intuition, as not many people are able to turn to particular religion. But the lack of reasoning for everyone, does not invalidate the reality of this possibility, just as the reality that most of people are not able to convert to religion (have faith) does not nullify the righteousness of faith”.[15]

Compare Dr. Nasr view on dividing people into different religions based on the fact that not many can convert to special religion and his attempt to authenticate/validate superstition with his stand on new science. He assents to the new science on the condition that (only if) it had succumbed to legitimacy criteria. His critique on new science is as follows;

“The first primary critique concerning new science is a moot point here. When a new science announces its independence from metaphysics or any other science, it infringes from acceptance of an authority which considers some borders for its legal/legitimate activities.[16]

  • Colonialist’s exploitation of dissemination of Christianity and its promotion.

Because Christianity is the official religion in west and is regarded as means to dominate over east; against Islam which is the formal religion of many eastern people and fights with perversion of the meaning/truth, church’s haughtiness, irrational beliefs/doctrines and foreign domination.  It was thought that the motive behind Crusade was people’s faith, but as a matter of fact it was colonialist’s mischievousness/ devilments which was fomenting sedition (mutiny).

Unfortunately, this has reached to the point that in the vanguard of 21 century[17], the president of United states cracks down on Islamic nations and occupies them chanting crusade slogans.

As a consequent, in liberal-democratic systems, Human society faces the dilemma, one of which ends to the point that people trample on their personality and credit for the sake of superstition and it imposes faith at the price of sacrificing personage, intellect, thought and humans freedom.

I myself prefer paganism (atheism) and irreligiousness of west thinkers to religiousness as defined by Christianity.

I’m seriously of the same mind with Bayle, French intellectual thinker, who says “the mischief/problem of the majority that should be targeted is not atheism but is superstitions[18]” and believe that superstition offenses God more than paganism and irreligiousness, like Diderot.[19]

And the other way is the way of atheism and materialism. In the west’s past and even present conditions, religion means Christianity! And people should be either Christian or irreligion. In other words, in west, men should trust and validate their own thought and mind, so they are faithless because Christian principles are not compatible, imaginable and verifiable/ demonstrable with humans mind and thought. And if they sacrifice themselves, their mind and thought, then they are a Christian devout/ believer.[20]

In such conditions, which way does free western human prefer?

It is predictable through basics that the majority of people will choose the path of irreligion, because;

Firstly, each school and ism (creed) which is not considered seriously by social management system will gradually lose its place and degree[21]. In such status, even the supporters of that religion do not care about it like Christianity in west.

Secondly, if any school fundamentally and basically does not have a rational base, it will turn pale steadily by development and expansion of rationalism to the point that its existence or nonexistence doesn’t make a difference. Like Christianity in western intellectual thinkers recitation, that we can see a good example of this recitation in “Drayaye Iman” (the sea/ocean of faith).

 The author of this book is a priest, expert at/in philosophy of religion and master of the same course at the university, a religious thinker, and scholar, innovative and active. In his book, he decorates and embellishes Christianity, irrational religion, to the extent that runs it completely / entirely out of its content. After discussion and detailed analysis of historical changes of religious thought grounded on the Enlightenment period, he concludes that:

“Religion is completely worldly and humanistic. Because religion is nothing except values which manifest in our social organs and our performances”[22]

If we consider this writing meticulously and fairly, we will not find a difference between a described religion and faithlessness of pagans/ atheists.

The author with resort to tens of introductions/prefaces and intellectual explanations, finally concludes that all religious basics  and matters are unreal and man-made entities and believes that every one’s God is the entity which they praise and worship, and it exactly  means nothing!  Although atheists and irreligions enter into this field more honestly.  

Thirdly, humans in their worldly life, mostly follow their appetites and natural instincts. If an invitation and warning does not exist, they almost always do not take doctrinal and ethical issues seriously. Based on this necessity, prophets are appointed /delegated and this necessity exists permanently till humans exist. Therefore, in western liberal systems, the dominion of appetites and instincts increases day by day.

Fourthly, our experiences and observations of existing conditions in west;

What we receive from observing life in west, on one hand is an approach to instinctive/natural life. It means that in the western human’s life, the power of instinct finds more opportunity day by day and takes the mind and thought as tools into its service

Rational faculty / Reason in west is considered as a tool to eliminate obstacles of human’s seek for fruition and gratification; the west culture is something resulted from desirous whim and tool-making reason[23]. One the other hand, what western states do is just exploitation and oppression; the powerful western states are the only cause for misery of the backward and deprived parts of the world.

Western states oppress dominated ones through thousands of (political) stratagems, mostly disguising as philiantrope /altruism aid, peace, distribution of knowledge, dissemination of civilization and hundreds different titles.

Billion dollars of military expenses, instead of being spent on destitute and cash-strapped people, are used to plunder and cause the people of deprived states become more wretched.[24] This thing is done harshly yet and those who are aware warn it continuously.[25]

So, humanistic systems cannot provide people’s worldly and other-worldly bliss as they would. And if they provide their worldly and material welfare to some extent, they are entirely unable and incapable to provide other-worldly felicity.

Here, reminding a point seems necessary, i.e., in philosophy of politics contrary to Avicenna, Farabi emphasizes on virtue, happiness, and eternal end whereas Avicenna lays emphasis on the possibility of human’s hostility and struggle/litigation founded on avidity.

It seems that farabi basic is better. Because, based on his fundamentals, even if in humanistic societies, infringement and injustice does not exist, again all men need prophetic guidance.

Hence, both philosophers had put politics after Origin (Mabda) and Resurrection (End; Maad), so through proving resurrection, human’s full and final happiness forms the basis of others.[26]

Now we turn back to the part of Avicenna’s reasoning. As it was mentioned before, besides his reasoning over proving prophecy, Avicenna says; how it could be possible that God who did not ignore details such as growing hair in eyebrows and making arch at the sole of humans feet to provide humans life with comfort, does not favor them with law and its executive, an important and decisive issue in people’s worldly and other-worldly life?[27]

We can also set this point out concerning the new western social system; why west attempts to improve people’s worldly life in a way that it seeks remedy for even trivial and simple needs of human beings but it remains apathetic to human’s spiritual and unearthly bliss and ignores their other-worldly happiness?

On what basis of rationalism (principles), we can take brushing teeth as a serious Matter or be sensitive to cigar dangers, but be indifferent towards human’s soul permanence/endurance and their happiness or misfortune in the after-death world?

Thus, we can practically observe these systems flaw and inability in the face of oppression, discrimination and exploitation in worldly life and provision of other-worldly bliss, and perceive the necessity of human guidance through divine revelation and prophecy.

It is based on this necessity that Farabi divides policy into “virtuous” and “un-virtuous” from the very beginning. The policy which cannot prepare and provide other-worldly bliss is considered as un-virtuous by him.[28]

Ibn-khaldoon (808 A.H) divides political systems into 3 groups based on their aims;

A. Primitive systems; Aimed at guarding human’s life. This system tries to provide Necessary conditions for human’s survival (Continuance of human’s existence).

  • Rational systems; besides humans survival/endurance, they try to provide people with a developed social life, in which they can do their business and engage in industry and knowledge peacefully.
  • Legal/legitimate systems; In addition to humans safeguarding and their true accessibility to benefits of social life, the other purpose of this system is to supply privileges of other-worldly life to people.  In Ibn-khaldoon’s view, the difference between rational and legal systems is that rational strategies/policies only take care of human’s worldly interests, but religions system also takes people’s other-worldly life privileges into account. [29]

The main characteristic of legal/juridical policy, in ibn-khaldoon’s point of view, is its divine origin.

God cares about all of human’s interests in their worldly and other worldly life. Not only Religions system does not ignore people’s worldly needs, but also puts / leaves them in order in the way that they do not harm other-worldly bliss. Therefore in religious system, rational policies principles are also observed wisely and meticulously and the only thing which religious system centers around is to help humans consider worldly interests as a part of their whole targets[30].

[1] – Avicenna “Shef a theology, He alive theology” جانامه 7 lines

[2] – Abu Nasr Muhammad Farabi “ara ul ahl ul-madinat ol-fazila”p117

Farabi’s discussions on politics are more than Avicenna’s and this is not a justifiable flaw or problem for Avicenna and other philosophers after him. Farabi has discussed politics in many books and articles. The research-based book of Mr.Mohajer Nia  is an attempt to elicit Farabi view points on politics from his numerous works.this book is published by Qom Bustane Ketab.

[3] – Surly, by Christianity, we mean the historical and existent one. Not the authentic Christianity which was communicated/notified Jesus Christ. The history of Christianity shows that to what extent it is added to it or subtracted from it.

[4] – For more details, see yasrebi yahyaya “khod kamegi va farhang”Chapter 2

[5] – Mehdi Haeri, “Hekmat va Hokumat” pp 140-143 , 153

[6] – Dr. Nas Hamed Abuzeid “Al-Esteghtab Akri beyn Al-Islam va Alsalmat ol-as fi mesr” ,”majallat ol-farigh ” 1994, No 3 pl0

[7] – Adel Zaher “Al –La maqut fi A-Haredat, Al-Islamiah, Al-Moaser” Mavagif magazine” No 67, 1992 (spring)

[8] – holy Quran 12/40

[9] – Ibid 13/11

[10] – Ibid 4/59, 5/55/33/36 24/5

[11] – Ibid 24/62

[13] – Muhammad Amir Sheikh “pajoheshi darbareye nehzathaye rahaee bakhsh”

pp221-303, Abdul-Vahab Vakiali “tarikhe novine felestin”

[15] –  Dr Sayyid Hossein Nasr “Marefat va Amre Qodsi” , and also Schwan Frithofer works

[16] – Sayyid Hossein Nasr: “Marefat va amre Qudsi” P. 108

[17] – US pressure on world Muslims and Islamic states, occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq on the pretext of fight against terrorism and hands involved in the September 11th event is a live witness to their decision. But the west murders and offences records entitle “Tabshir (annunciation) and promoting Christianity in Asia and Africa is very elaborate and detailed and is beyond the capacity of this article in the case of Iran we can just point these boots as an example:

Morteza Nazart  «بررسي شيوه هاي تبليغاتي مسيحيت (ع)»

Salzmann tablemate Islamic, 1371

Richard stilling “Moballeghane Jadid”

[18] – Ernest, Kasirer «فلسفه روشن انديشي» P. 218

[19] – Ibid

[20] – Mircha Eliadeh “Culture and religion” P.11

[21] – Like socialism and communism after disintegration of soviet union

[22] – Dan Kupit “An ocean of faith” P.338

[23] – Sayyid Mortedha Mardiha “Defa Az Aghlaniat” PP. 15-16

[24] – Dr. Humayun Elahi “Empirialism and Aqab Mandegi”

[25] – Rodge Gorrodi «هشدار به زندگان»

Willie brant “Armed world, Hungry world”

[26] – Abu Nasr Muhammad farabi “Taligat” before and abu Nasr Muhammad Farabi “Foule Montazee”

[27] – Avicenna “Shefa va nejat” “Al-Elahiat”, “Bahse Nabovvat”

[28] – Abu Nasr Muhammad Farabi: “Ara Ahi ul madina tul fazila” P.118 Abu Nasr Muhammad Farabi: “Fosul Montazee” P.92

[29] – Abdul Rahman Ibn-Khaldoon; “Moqaddameh” pp275-343

[30] – Ibid

irrationlity of religion.