Innovation and change in science are in need of a scholarly methodology. Given the necessity of change in science, this article aims at establishing “the theory of observation”. Using a historical and logical approach, this theory is a model of “philosophy of” [a determined philosophy]. Making further clarification to the aforementioned theory, the author explains terms such as: the research methodology, the nature of a theory, attitude, approach, project, scientific discipline, reality, logical approach, historical approach,(the philosophy of) science, (the philosophy of) reality, the first degree knowledge, the second degree knowledge and the nature of the philosophy. Afterwards, explaining all types of “philosophies of”, the various kinds and the necessity of the establishment of historical-logical “philosophies of” (The theory of observation) and their issues are discussed.