َAccording to the Office of Public Relations and Information Science of the Islamic Culture and Thought Organization , the scientific meeting on the development and development of cooperative economics theory based on the Islamic principles and teachings in the Islamic Republic, on Tuesday, February 23, 1397, by the group of politics and with the cooperation of the Department of Economics of the Institute with the presentation of Hojjatoleslam Ahmadali Yousefi, director of Islamic Economics Department, was held in Qom’s wisdom hall.
The content of this scientific meeting is presented below:
Hojjatoleslam Ahmad Ali Yousefi: The
topic of our discussion is the development and development of the cooperative economy theory based on the Islamic principles and teachings in the Islamic Republic, the past, the present situation and the future. “
Based on my dedication, I concluded that this issue had not been raised before the creation of the Islamic Republic of Iran. In 2008, I wrote a book on this subject and previously searched in Persian and non-Persian sources, but there was not even a scientific research resource or a book on economics related to cooperatives.
The influence of the Islamic Republic on the cooperative system of the
post-revolutionary school of Islam has been well suited to the cooperative economy, and the first work of the cooperative in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and as the first impetus from the school of Islam, is the fourth principle of the constitution, which states: Civil, criminal, financial, economic, administrative, cultural, military, political, etc. should be based on Islamic principles.
This principle governs the use of, or the public, all the principles of the constitution and other laws and regulations, and it is the responsibility of the jurists of the Guardian Council to determine this.
Therefore, Chapter Four of the Constitution and Principles 43 and 44 follow it. After the absentee, the first comprehensive constitution is based on the Islamic jurisprudence of Islam in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The issue of cooperative and cooperative economics is mentioned in this constitution in seriousness.
Shahid Beheshti, the first thinker of the School of Islam, co-
opted the first thinker to represent the cooperative economy in the framework of the Islamic school in the form of a martyr Beheshti. The Ministry of Co-operation has published a small booklet of Shahid Beheshti, the text of which is a lecture, which is a manifestation of the Islamic cooperative economy.
The martyr Beheshti raised 18 major issues, some of which were ambiguous and I am confused in the book I am referring to as cooperative economics from the perspective of Islam.
The explanation of the basic issues of cooperative economics in the school of Islam The
first issue that Shahid Beheshti poses is the issue of cooperative nature and their discussion in this section is an examination of the cooperative nature of the economic system, whether it is a cooperative, economic sector, or particular economic method? He concludes in this section that the cooperative is the economic sector.
We have eliminated this ambiguity by writing an article entitled “The Capacity of Islamic teachings in the discovery and design of a four-part economic system.” In this paper, we have proved the public sector, the cooperative sector, the private sector and the benevolent sector based on the Islamic economic system.
Cooperative economics certainly is a system of economic system when it is placed within the capitalist and socialist system, but when it is analyzed on the basis of Islam, it is definitely one of the sectors of the economic system of Islam. The second is the issue of the position of cooperatives in relation to the capitalist and socialist system, which we have discussed this discussion in the nature of the cooperatives.
Explaining the type of ownership in cooperatives
is the third issue of property ownership in cooperative and its difference in types of cooperatives, which is one of the debates of Shahid Beheshti, and they are about the type of ownership, private property, private, public, government, and business, which we raise ambiguities We have also redressed this section, and in our book we have divided the ownership of the two types of comprehensive and semi-structured property ownership and divided the explanation.
Cooperative economics versus competitive economy
Another issue is the principle of cooperative behavioral attitude towards the principle of free economic competition. This discussion has been raised with ambiguity in the words of Shahid Beheshti.
In our view, we have made it clear that the cooperative behavior is within a competitive economy, and this discussion has been well explained by the professor of Imam (AI), Ayatullah Mohammad Ali Shahabadi, and unfortunately, the scientific and economic aspects of this character remain unknown.
The Brotherhood Economy Plan by Ayatollah Shahabadi,
Mr. Mohammad Ali Shahabadi, has a book titled Encyclopedia of Shapes, in which the book presents the foundations of Cooperative Economics as the Brotherhood of Economics. He argued there the argument of a competitive economy that we have two types of economics, one of the monopolistic economy and one competitive economy.
The monopoly economy has disadvantages and is not good, so it remains the competitive economy that we need to get into this economy. He rejects this argument and argues: “Competitive economics is the same economy as realism, and it is at all a monopoly to the rule of competition.
By rejecting the arguments of their competitive economy, they argue for a brotherly economy based on co-operation within the model and a responsible competition outside the model, and on the basis of these two principles, they provide an economic structure.
Exploring the founding principles of cooperatives
Another issue that needs to be addressed is the co-operative principles and cooperative principle. In cooperatives, there are three to 60 principles, but what are the co-operatives of several principles and what are these principles? In our book we mention five principles for cooperatives that refer to friends in this book.
Explaining the types of cooperatives of
the sixth issue that Shahid Beheshti has raised and ambiguities is a criterion for the division of types of cooperatives. Now we are faced with many cooperatives such as housing, labor, municipality, production, distribution and consumption, and we need to know that there are several kinds of cooperative economies in a single economic system? We have come to the conclusion, based on the criteria we have set, that there are three types of production, distribution and integration cooperatives.
Another issue that has been addressed by Shahid Beheshti in their manifesto is how much capital and government ownership and co-operative management are ambiguous and should be dealt with in detail.
There, the martyr Beheshti discussed how the property is popular and government-owned? Here too, in my book, I have discussed the management of cooperatives in great detail.
The role of cooperatives in how to divest state-owned enterprises
Another issue that Shahid Beheshti highlighted in their manifesto is the role of cooperatives in how to divest state-owned firms and avoid the flow of capitalism.
One of the places where Shahid Beheshti screams is here, and their cry is that you, the people, are not government officials. When cooperatives are left, we will face private capitalism instead of state capitalism.
This is precisely what is happening now and, unfortunately, state capitalism has become a private capitalism. Shahid Beheshti says that if we are to escape state capitalism, we need to bring wealth to the people’s main body and that no economic sector other than the cooperative sector has such a capacity.
In completing the martyr Beheshti’s statement in the operation of this method, we have provided many solutions to the diversions of state-owned enterprises in order not to be subjected to private capitalism.
Well, in private capitalism, the problem is doubled, and those who are in charge of this type of capitalism do not have mercy upon the people, and the mercy of the state in capitalism is much better than the welfare of the private sector towards the people.
In the problems that arose in the discussion of meat, diapers and … this year, we saw only a few government stores in the city like Qom who came to the people and left private stores like Cyrus and … hoarding the property and hesitating.
The same exercise of this kind of non-expert assignments has caused us to announce more than three hundred investors in a public announcement last year that investors had to sign up for the distribution of some stores and distribution systems and were in line with such a Launch stores.
The proportion of free membership and government interference in cooperatives
Another headline that has been referred to by Martyr Beheshti is the question of the proportion of free membership and government involvement in cooperatives.
We have stated in this section that membership for everyone in the cooperatives is a right, but also a responsibility. We also specify where the government should intervene and where is the responsibility of the cooperatives. The government has to be present in the economy on the basis of its responsibilities and outside its responsibility, its interference is inactive and inalienable.
The presence of cooperatives only in small partnerships or major manufacturing and distribution companies
. Another issue is the presence of cooperatives only in small contributions or large manufacturing and distribution companies. Many people suspect that cooperatives will do something for a small land-based activity.
This is a false idea, and we have made it clear in this section that cooperatives are able to engage in widespread and semi-active engagement in large-scale economic sectors.
Co-operatives of credit and their role in relation to banks The
credit cooperatives and their role in relation to banks are another set of issues in the Shahid Beheshti Manifesto. We are now faced with an institution called credit cooperatives that are no different from banks.
In some capitalist systems, their view is that capital, capital, money, money, and, in order to institutionalize this slogan, created a stock exchange and a bank, respectively. They have designed the economic structure in such a way that the rich, the richer, and the capitalists become more capital-intensive.
Following this and our confrontation with the capitalist system of cooperatives to this day are not admitted to the exchange and do not operate on the stock exchange, and cooperatives have been credited for the distribution of wealth and distribution of income that occurs only from the area of cooperatives and through the distribution of ownership. So the main task of the cooperatives is different from the banks and so the institution has separate capital from the stock exchange.
As it turned out, another discussion that needs to be addressed is a separate section, and martyr Beheshti has also done this by addressing the issue of financing the productive cooperatives and the ratio of cooperatives to the capital and stock markets.
Another part of the Shahid Beheshti Manifesto is how to cut off the intermediaries between production and distribution and preventing false employment. Today, the fruit sold by the farmer to a broker for $ 1,500 in the market will reach the consumer with 200% or 300%.
The economic structure is designed in such a way as to include intermediaries, and the solution to remove intermediaries is to rebuild the economic structure so that intermediaries are systematically eliminated.
Examining the Causes of the Deletion of the Real Self-Employed Cooperatives
By examining what I did, I have achieved three types of cooperative with a false and non-false and pseudo-false criteria. Cooperatives are subdivided into real, false, and pseudo-cooperative cooperatives. We do not have real or very few cooperative societies in Iran; actual cooperatives were eroded by a system of capitalism and the communist system.
Marx came and opposed cooperatives, and the capitalist system also came to the fore in 1844, and therefore there was no real co-operative in the history of the economy, and whatever exists, there are existing cooperatives in the socialist system that the Communists have proposed and are false to these cooperatives On the front of the real cooperatives.
The West Bloc, by expanding its false cooperatives, instead of real cooperative societies, hit other cooperatives and prevented their progress, while actual cooperatives around the world were developing.
One reason for the disappearance of real cooperative societies was that these cooperatives were based on experience and had no strong theological and philosophical foundations and could not defend themselves and therefore could not survive the capitalist system and the communist system.
Given this vanity, we have been able to provide a solid philosophical and verbal basis for cooperatives in this section of our book.
The criterion of the role of members in the level of management based on capital or
other criteria is the criterion of the role of members in the level of management based on capital or other criteria. Sometimes it is said that everyone should have a role in management, and in Islamic corporations as well.
In this section, we have proven the principle of “everyone’s vote”, and we believe that the vote should not be in the amount of capital, but should be based on the level of management power, experience, expertise and background, and based on the criteria of the principles and philosophy of the cooperatives.
Being employed by all shareholder, or a shareholder without a job
is another matter that the martyr Beheshti is asking, being employed by all share holders, or holding a share without employment. We conclude in this section that we can have non-owner employees, but not permanently. That is, people can be employed, but they must continue to be accepted as a member.
The analysis of dividend limitations The dividend limit
analysis is another issue that Mrs. Beheshti is proposing, and we believe that anyone who has received any share in addition to the profits should also benefit from return agrarts, but how much redistribution is distributed, we We have about fifteen ways to distribute it.
We have shown, based on the principles and philosophy of cooperatives and the structure of cooperatives on the basis of Islamic principles, that there should be a dividend restriction first and we have explained how the surplus is distributed among individuals.
Another discussion that we need to address is how the distribution of profits in distributive, productive and integrated cooperatives, explained in past parts of the past, and also the criteria for the distribution of surplus returns were also explained.
The entrance of the Institute of Culture and Thought in the theorizing of the field of cooperatives in the country
after the viewpoint of Shahid Beheshti did not happen in the cooperatives, but a partial revision of the cooperative law, which was conducted in 2008 on the basis of the Islamic school.
The minister of co-operation contacted the director of the field and said that the Supreme Leader insisted that the cooperative economy was the mainstay of the Iranian economy and that they would ask the region to base their own ideas on cooperatives.
They contacted the Institute of Islamic Culture and Thought and presented the case, and the research institute became seriously involved in this, which led us to meet with the Minister of Time and the Co-operation Officers, and presented our ideas that are based on these ideas. The Ministry of Cooperatives was used.
The look at the three schools of capitalism, socialism, and Islam into the role of labor and capital in the economy
based on the production function (q = f (K, I), labor (skilled, semi-skilled and simple) and capital (cash and non-cash) Q includes all manufacturing goods and services, and the question is how much capital is involved in production, followed by the capital and owner of what the share of the product is to earn. The same question was raised about the workforce .
The answer to the question of the economic system of capitalism is that all the property belongs to the owner of the capital, and the workforce must abide by the wages of the owner. The answer came from problems like inflation and other economic problems that were most evident in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The socialist system responded by saying that capital is useless to us, and that originality is with labor, and that capital does not have any role, but the government must come and take ownership.
But the Islamic response to the above question was based on religious economic democracy because Islam believes in religious economic democracy. The economic system of Islam is a four-state system of government, special, cooperative and charitable, and with these four sections, religious religious democracy is enshrined in the explanation in our book.
Analyzing the Foundations of Economic Economic Religious Religious Economic
Democracy Based on the following bases: 1 Ashraf man is all creatures of the universe, 2 is the successor to the earth, 3 The maintenance of human dignity is underpinned by the Qur’anic teachings, 4 Human beings are angels, 5 The creation of all blessings God is for man.
Based on these principles, the economic structure must be set up so that human and other fundamentals are not discriminated against and all the above principles are taken into account.
This kind of look at man is a completely different look from the look of capitalism to man and capital. Based on the above, we have developed the goals, principles, and models of cooperative economics and we have come up with a comparative approach.
The lack of familiarity to the co-sponsor’s bills with Islamic foundations
Another of the system’s activities for the implementation of cooperatives was the drafting of bills related to cooperatives. According to the cooperative theory, in the years 89, 92, and 95, three were written and reached me before I went to the public courtroom.
In the year 89, I saw that if the bill became law, the cooperatives would surely be destroyed. They had written these bills, which they believed did not have any familiarity with the Islamic economics system.
In the year 92, the bill gave me the power and authority of the cooperatives, and I said that you still do not have the law to apply the duties and authority. In 1995, the law of co-operation was written in detail, and it came to my notice, and I saw that the previous procedure is also in force in these laws, and it destroys the cooperatives.
The fourth attempt by the system to develop cooperatives was to ask my servant to give a description of the current status of the cooperative, and also I was asked to make the situation a pathologist and to develop the principles of reviewing the rules of co-operation. I sent a forty-page pamphlet to the Majles Economic Commission.
Future plans to complete the co-ops
The future plans for completing the co- ops are as follows:
1 Compilation of the Cooperative Law School
2 Revision of the Cooperative Law under the supervision of a Committee of Experts on Cooperatives and Laws
3 Conducting Workshops on Economics A cooperative from the perspective of Islam for cooperative experts at different levels.
4 Implementation of Pathological Projects of Cooperative Economy of Iran and Presenting Strategies and Strategies for Changing the Present Status.
5 Designing a Cooperative Research Journal.
6 Developing Studies of the World’s
Best Cooperative Universities and Using Their Scientific and Practical Experiences. 7 Compilation of Textbooks for Cooperative Courses with Islamic Approach in Universities for Levels. Baccalaureate to Ph.D.
8 Compilation of works to explain the ideas of cooperative Islamic scholars such as Ayatollah Shahabadi, Shahid Beheshti, Martyr Motahari, Supreme Leader and Ayatollah Javadi Amoli.
9 Translation of cooperative views of Islamic scholars in different languages of the world.
In the Islamic Republic of Iran, whatever we do, the translation is from the west towards us and there is no reverse translation, but there are indeed translations of the West that are based on the ideas of the Islamic scholars who mentioned them.